noun, plural: monosaccharides
(1) A simple sugar, example: fructose, glucose, and ribose.
(2) The simplest form of carbohydrate; therefore, it cannot be broken down to simpler sugars by hydrolysis.
(3) A sugar that constitutes the building blocks of a more complex form of sugars such as oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.
(4) Molecule with chemical formula (CH2O)n+m, and with the chemical structure H(CHOH)nC=O(CHOH)mH.
Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain:
Monosaccharides are classified the type of carbonyl group they contain:
Word origin: from Greek, monos: single + sacchar: sugar.
Synonym: monosaccharose, simple sugar.
Compare: disaccharide, polysaccharide.
See also: carbohydrate.