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Mitosis

Definition

noun, plural mitoses

The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell.


Supplement

Prior to this, the genetic material of the original (parent) cell has replicated during the S phase of the cell cycle so that when the cell enters mitosis it undergoes four major phases which culminates in the formation of two identical (daughter) cells:

1st phase: Prophase: formation of paired chromosomes, disappearance of nuclear membrane, appearance of the achromatic spindle, formation of polar bodies

2nd phase: Metaphase: arrangement of chromosomes in the equatorial plane. Chromosomes separate into exactly similar halves.

3rd phase: Anaphase: the two groups of daughter chromosomes separate and move along the fibres of the central spindle, each toward one of the asters, forming the diaster.

4th phase: Telophase: two daughter nuclei are formed, the cytoplasm divides, forming two complete daughter cells.

Originally, the term mitosis refers only to nuclear division unaccompanied by cytokinesis (which is the division of the cytoplasm), as in the case of some cells like certain fungi and in fertilized egg of many insects. As used now, mitosis used interchangeably with cell division.


Word origin: from Greek mitos, warp thread + –OSIS.
Related forms:
mitotic (adjective), mitotically (adverb).
Synonym:
karyokinesis.
Compare:
meiosis.
See also:
cell, cell division.


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Chromatin

If DNA residing in the cell is loosly packed DNA called chromatin, and if in the Interphase the chromatin replicates to prepare for mitosis, then it must be that when the chromatin replicated there were only 23 modules of DNA in the cell for it to replicate. Is that correct? That way once ...

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by Hannamerika
Thu Sep 04, 2014 9:12 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Chromatin
Replies: 2
Views: 186

Chromosome Differences

I thing handling of large DNA molecule or chomosome may be difficult during replication or mitosis, so small DNA molecule selected during the course of evolution. We can see chromosomes number is usually increased from lower to higher eukaryotes or lower to higher complexity ...

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by josem
Wed Sep 03, 2014 8:47 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Chromosome Differences
Replies: 5
Views: 287

mitosis and miosis

In a nutshell: Mitosis- The division of a cell to create two identical new cells. Meiosis- The division of a cell into a gamete, carrying half the genetic DNA of a normal cell, to fertilize another gamete (Example, sperm fertilizing ...

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by CaptainCovalency
Thu Jul 10, 2014 3:58 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: mitosis and miosis
Replies: 2
Views: 1861

Stem Cells and Cell division?

Hello, I am well aware of the concepts of Stem Cells (Cell specialization) and Cell Division (Mitosis), however I am unsure of where their applications lie. I am well aware of the function of embryonic stem cells (As I know that Cell Specialization must occur in order ...

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by CaptainCovalency
Thu Jul 10, 2014 3:54 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Stem Cells and Cell division?
Replies: 0
Views: 457

Need some help with a question

In the cell cycle, at which stages do two chromatids make up one chromosome? (Can be multiple answers) a. beginning of mitosis b. end of G1 phase c. beginning of S (Synthesis) d. end of mitosis e. beginning of G2 phase

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by nillkill
Sat Mar 22, 2014 5:49 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Need some help with a question
Replies: 0
Views: 1582
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