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Mitochondria

Definition

noun, singular: mitochondrion

Spherical or rod-shaped organelles found within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, and are referred to as the “powerhouse of the cell since they act as the site for the production of high-energy compounds (e.g. ATP), which are vital energy source for several cellular processes.


Supplement

They produce large amounts of energy through oxidative phosphorylation of organic molecules during cellular respiration. That is, they are capable of using glucose and oxygen to produce energy (and releasing carbon dioxide and water in the process) for use in many metabolic processes. Thus, it is not surprising to find several mitochondria in high energy-requiring cells, such as muscle cells.

They are semi-autonomous, self-reproducing organelles because they contain their own genome. In fact, their DNA has become an important tool in tracking genetic histories since their genetic material is present in only one copy, and does not recombine in reproduction.

According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria might have been the remnants of early bacteria engulfed by ancient eukaryotic cells a billion years ago that might have evolved and become energy-yielding structures within eukaryotic cells at present.


Word origin: from Gk. mitos - thread + khondrion - little granule.
Related forms: mitochondrial (adjective).
Also known as: chondriosome.
See also: cellular respiration, ATP.


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Re: Mitochondrial DNA

... to do with physical traits, such as hair color, eye color, size etc? As far as I know, no. mtDNA encodes some of the various components for the mitochondria such as the ETC (Electron Transport Chain) proteins such as ATP synthase and it's own ribosomal genes. Here is a pretty good representation ...

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by Zargo
Sun Sep 07, 2014 5:02 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Mitochondrial DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 138

Re: Food to ATP energy?

... into about 30 moles of ATP. Many biology textbooks will state 38, but they do not account for the cost of transporting pyruvate and ADP into the mitochondria, and other costs to move molecules for the entire process. There are ~4 kilocalories, our ~4 Calories (with a capitol "C") in ...

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by tmbirkhead
Thu Aug 14, 2014 1:11 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Food to ATP energy?
Replies: 2
Views: 1083

Spontaneous formation of nuclear membrane

... due to amphipathic nature phospholipids. But how double membrane architecture in nucleus form spontaneously after each cell division? In the case mitochondria and chloroplast, the double membrane is form spontaneously because they are produced from parent organelles. Do nuclear pore complex have ...

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by josem
Sun Jun 22, 2014 1:14 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Spontaneous formation of nuclear membrane
Replies: 1
Views: 735

Re: How did endosymbionts coordinate replication?

Regarding the regulation of replication of mitochondria, this paper discusses an influence of tumor necrosis factor alpha on mitochondrial replication while exploring the effect of adenosine on that regulatory system. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0098459 ...

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by jonmoulton
Wed Jun 11, 2014 2:08 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: How did endosymbionts coordinate replication?
Replies: 9
Views: 4405

How did endosymbionts coordinate replication?

... to/role of having multiple copies of the same circular DNA molecule? Isn't that "too much of a dose" of the same given gene? Any mitochondria expert out here?

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by kk
Fri Jun 06, 2014 12:16 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: How did endosymbionts coordinate replication?
Replies: 9
Views: 4405
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