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Meiosis

Definition

noun

A form of cell division happening in sexually reproducing organisms by which two consecutive nuclear divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) occur without the chromosomal replication in between, leading to the production of four haploid gametes (sex cells), each containing one of every pair of homologous chromosomes (that is, with the maternal and paternal chromosomes being distributed randomly between the cells).


Supplement

Meiosis encompasses interphase, meiosis I and meiosis II. The interphase consists of G1, S and G2 whereas both meiosis I and II consist of four major subphases such as prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The process of meiosis is briefly described as follows. During the interphase, the chromosomes in a cell are duplicated. This is followed by meiosis I wherein the chromosomes condense along the center of the nucleus, and pair with their homologues during crossing over. Next, the pairs of chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. The cell divides for the first time producing two cells. The two cells will undergo meiosis II wherein both of them divides further into two cells, each containing one of every decoupled chromosome’s sister strands (chromatids), thus, producing four genetically different, haploid cells.

Meiosis is a vital process because it reduces the original number of chromosomes to half, and allows genetic variability by genetic recombination and independent assortment. Meiosis produces four haploid cells that may develop into potential gametes so that when fertilization occurs, a new individual with the full number of genes results, thereby maintaining the integrity of chromosomal number across generations while promoting genetic diversity and variability in forms in the population.


Word origin: Greek meiōsis, diminution, from meioun, to diminish, from meiōn, less.
Related forms: meiotic (adjective).


Compare: mitosis.
See also: cell division.


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genetic

... are possible in daughter cells following mitosis? b. What combination(s) of chromosomes are possible in haploid cells following both divisions of meiosis? (Hint: remember independent assortment)

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by lachatausa
Fri Mar 21, 2014 2:55 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: genetic
Replies: 0
Views: 122

Meiosis prophase I crossover

“Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosomal_crossover Question: Due to the multiple layers of winding, how can parts of the chromosome break evenly? Is ...

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by gs99
Fri Mar 07, 2014 9:23 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Meiosis prophase I crossover
Replies: 0
Views: 166

Why can't sperm cells divide mitotically?

Hi,,, Can sperm cells or egg cells undergo mitotic division? I mean can a cell divide mitotically after meiosis? If not, why??? :roll: Thank you

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by Sue4
Sun Mar 02, 2014 10:07 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Why can't sperm cells divide mitotically?
Replies: 1
Views: 172

Re: Multicellular prokaryote

... differentiation, and importantly: endocystosis which allowed for the 'taking in' of other organisms. Sexual reproduction (especially meiosis) yielded new organisms which were both distinct but also compatible, arising from a single new cell. Essentially, eukaryotic organisms can be ...

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by thirdprometheus
Fri Nov 15, 2013 7:45 pm
 
Forum: Microbiology
Topic: Multicellular prokaryote
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Views: 17829

Need an help about Drosophila genetics

... ; 3rd chromosomes wild-type homozygous crossed with: 2nd chromosomes wild-type homozygous; 3rd Chromosomes Repo and TM6 Using your knowledge of meiosis, what should you be looking for?

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by golgicik
Wed Oct 30, 2013 8:46 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Need an help about Drosophila genetics
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