Interleukin 13 gene is located at 12 kb upstream of the IL-4 gene and consists of 4 exons and 3 introns that has 132 amino acids wherein the mature protein begins at the first N-terminal Gly with 112 long that is mapped to chromosome 5q23-q31 with molecular mass of 12,300 Da which induces through a multi-subunit of IL-4 receptor. It is able to upregulate the expression of several surface molecules that augmenting B-cell proliferation stimulated by anti-IgM antibodies or CD40L and is a control factor for IgE and IgG4. It is noted to cover an intense effect on monocytes that includes changes in morphology, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, surface antigen expression and cytokine synthesis.
Interleukin 13 acts as highly molecular bridge linking allergic inflammatory cells to the non-immune cells in contact with altering physiological function. It is established to be critical to the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma through the mechanisms independent of eosinophils. In general Interleukin-13 performs like IL-4 even though in many instances it is less effective.
Interleukin 13 is produce by activated T cells and has been identified by a subtraction-cloning approach from CD28. It modulates monocytes and macrophage functions in similar manner of IL-4. It is an important mediator of allergic inflammations and diseases.
Gene name: IL13
Protein name: Interleukin-13