Homo sapiens neanderthalensis
The name neanderthalensis is derived from the place (i.e. the Neander valley in Germany) the fossilized skeletal remains were excavated in 1856. The distinctive traits include a bigger brain size (approx. 1500 cc), shorter but brawnier stature, marked mid-face forward projection, larger and rounder orbits, broad nose, jaw lacking a projecting bony chin, and larger teeth compared with modern human beings.
The taxonomic position is still under debate. Some scientists think that they are a subspecies of Homo sapiens (hence, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) while others believe that they are distinct species. Hence, some people would refer to them as Homo neanderthalensis.