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Glycogen

Definition

noun, plural: glycogens

A branched polymer of glucose that is mainly produced in liver and muscle cells, and functions as secondary long-term energy storage in animal cells.


Supplement

Glycogen is sometimes referred to as "animal starch." It is an analogue of starch in plants, only it is less branched. Under the microscope, glycogen has a characteristic asterisk or star appearance. When the body needs energy, glycogen is broken down into glucose with glucagon. Small amounts of glycogen can be found in the kidneys, and some glial cells in the brain and white blood cells. The uterus also stores glycogen during pregnancy to nourish the embryo.


See also: glycogenesis


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Re: Food to ATP energy?

... for ATP production). - It should be noted that not all molecules of glucose are used in ATP production. Some are used to produce lactic acid, glycogen, glycerol, fat, and I'm sure there are other metabolites that I'm not thinking of. When glucose is consumed in excess (eating more calories ...

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by tmbirkhead
Thu Aug 14, 2014 1:11 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Food to ATP energy?
Replies: 2
Views: 1083

When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?

The article gives a lot of background on general gluconeogenesis, which is why I tagged it. And apparently, enzymes involved in glycogen transformation inhibit gluconeogenesis...or maybe it's intermediate products...

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by Darby
Wed Dec 25, 2013 2:30 pm
 
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?
Replies: 12
Views: 5855

When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?

... Darby, but the article is about renal gluconeogenesis, which starts only in prolonged fasting conditions, unlike liver GNG. Yes it is true that glycogen reserves would usually be enough, but that doesn't mean that GNG does not take place all the same, apparently both metabolisms can occur at ...

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by Aymeric
Fri Dec 20, 2013 6:36 pm
 
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?
Replies: 12
Views: 5855

When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?

I assumed that glycogen reserves would be enough except for extreme conditions, and that is sort of true... Ths has a decent overview - http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/24/2/382.long

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by Darby
Fri Dec 20, 2013 5:48 pm
 
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?
Replies: 12
Views: 5855

Re:

Isn't gluconeogenesis SYNTHESIS of glucose, rather than breakdown of glycogen? Yes, I'm not sure what your point is (?) I know that predators with almost no carb sources do that, but it seems that it would require pretty extreme conditions to kick in for human... ...

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by Aymeric
Sat Dec 14, 2013 11:11 pm
 
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: When does gluconeogenesis kick in during physical activity?
Replies: 12
Views: 5855
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