Galtons system of classification of fingerprints
a system of classification based on the variations in the patterns of the ridges, which are grouped into arches, loops, and whorls (a.L.W. Or arch-loop-whorl system). Arches are formed when the ridges run from one side to the other of the bulb of the digit, without making any backward turn, but no twist; whorls, when there is a turn through at least one complete circle; they are also considered to include all duplex spirals. The abbreviations used in making a record of fingerprints are: a, arch; l, loop; w, whorl; i, loop with an inner (thumb side) slope; o, loop with an outer (little-finger side) slope. The ten digits are registered in four groups as follows, distinguished by capital letters: a, the fore, middle, and ring fingers of the right hand; B, the fore, middle, and ring fingers of the left hand; c, the thumb and little finger of the right hand; D, the thumb and little finger of the left hand.
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... 19th century German anthropologist who developed the first scientific system of racial hierarchy, and Gould's own previously published reviews ... his readers that this whole statistical methodology is derived from Galtons pioneering work on the bivariate normal distribution and linear regression. ...
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