Flavin-containing Monooxygenase 3
Flavin-containing Monooxygenase 3 gene is mapped on chromosome 1q24.3 that contains 1 noncoding and 8 coding exons. In fetal liver it is present in low level yet high level in adult liver as well as in lung and kidney. It also metabolizes other drugs such as tamoxifen, amphetamine, clozapine, ethionamide, sulindac sulfide, thiacetazone, metamphetamine and deprenyl.
Flavin-containing Monooxygenase 3 provides directions for making an enzyme to breakdown compounds that contains nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. It is mainly made in liver which is in charge for breaking down nitrogen containing compounds derived from diet. This enzyme is normally converts fishy-smell trimethylamine into another compound, trimethylamine-N-oxide which has no odor excreted in urine.
Flavin-containing Monooxygenase 3 gene mutations has been identified with individual with trimethylaminuria which lead to the production of small non-functional FMO3 enzyme which unable to convert trimethylamine oxide to trimethylamine-N-oxide resulting to the buildup of trimethylamine in the body and is released as a strong smelly body odor in the form of sweat, breath and urine. Some studies reveals that stress and diet causes the intensity of the fish-like odor.
Gene name: FMO3
Protein name: Dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3
• FMO II