Dictionary » E » Effector



noun, plural: effectors

(biochemistry) A molecule that binds to a protein and affects the function of that protein

(physiology) An organ, a gland, or a muscle that can respond and becomes active in response to a stimulus (e.g. nerve impulse)

(physiology) The part of a nerve carrying a stimulus to a muscle, gland, organ, etc., and affects the function of the latter


In biochemistry, an effector is that molecule that binds to a specific protein, and regulates the latter's biological activity. An effector molecule acts as a ligand that is capable of increasing or decreasing the activity of that protein. It can also regulate the activity of certain mRNA molecules (e.g. riboswitches), gene expression, and cell signaling. The main types of effectors are the activators and the inhibitors. Examples of effectors are as follows: (1) allosteric effectors, (2) bacterial effectors, and (3) fungal effectors (e.g. apoplastic effectors and cytoplasmic effectors).

In other biological contexts, the term effector is used to describe an organ, a gland, or a muscle that responds to a nerve impulse.

Word origin: Latin, equivalent to effec-, efficere, effectus (the carrying out) + -tor ()


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Secondary Sugars(metabolism/sugar/bacteria/Lac Operon)

... the above part, but I stumbled across something that seemed to be of use; that secondary sugars might be sugars the require cAMP and CRP to be the effector of the operon(along with the operon inducer of course). Since gallactose is what the cell wants the most then the other metabolic operons(like ...

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by Vulpess
Mon Dec 16, 2013 6:55 am
Forum: Microbiology
Topic: Secondary Sugars(metabolism/sugar/bacteria/Lac Operon)
Replies: 2
Views: 3033

Bio Research Paper Writing

... cells to fight the disease so there is an increase in counts of CD8 T cells and a decreased amounts of naieve cells and increased number of effector memory CD8 cells. This accumulation of unnecessary memory T-cells (termed memory inflation) has been shown to acumulate through the organism’s ...

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by NathanielZhu
Thu Apr 04, 2013 2:25 am
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Bio Research Paper Writing
Replies: 3
Views: 18487

Re: Re:

... mice do not die of herpes - but later they develop severe autoimmunity that kills them. So there clearly seems to be a fine balance between the effector and regulatory functions of the immune system: the response must be quick and specific, but not too specific so that it can cover mutants as ...

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by biohazard
Wed Jun 29, 2011 6:43 am
Forum: Human Biology
Topic: How does negative selection in the thymus get around viral a
Replies: 3
Views: 7060

Re: Special case of enzyme inhibitor?

... that the reason for the increase in maximum velocity be due to other compounds present in the crude extract that may have become an allosteric effector on the enzyme or competed with the substrate? If so, how can the inhibitor be classified then? As a competitive or mixed inhibitor? What may ...

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by Azure
Thu Feb 17, 2011 11:52 am
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Special case of enzyme inhibitor?
Replies: 3
Views: 4508

Re: Brain function

This is in terms of Brain functions. This is an effect brought about by the passage of the nerve impulses from a sensory ending to the effector organ along divisions of the nerve fibre without traversing a synapse, Example,the vasodilation is resulting from the irritation of the conjunctiva; ...

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by beautiful
Mon Oct 04, 2010 10:09 am
Forum: Physiology
Topic: Brain function
Replies: 1
Views: 3814
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