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DNA

Definition

noun

A double-stranded nucleic acid that contains the genetic information for cell growth, division, and function.


Supplement

Structure: DNA is composed of two strands that twist together to form a helix. Each strand consists of alternating phosphate (PO4) and pentose sugar (2-deoxyribose), and attached on the sugar is a nitrogenous base, which can be adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine. In DNA, these bases pair; adenine pairs with thymine and guanine with cytosine. Hence, DNA is a ladder-like helical structure.

Location: DNA is found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells, and chiefly in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. A small fraction of total DNA is present in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

Function: DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides to code for the sequence of amino acid during protein synthesis. DNA is said to carry the genetic ‘blueprint’ since it contains the instructions or information (called genes) needed to construct cellular components like proteins and RNA molecules.


Word origin: abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid.
See also: gene, base pair, genetic code, RNA.


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Re: Mitochondrial DNA

There are genetic diseases caused by defects carried on the mitochondrial chromosome that can have clear phenotypic consequences. http://www.umdf.org/site/c.8qKOJ0MvF7LUG/b.7934627/k.3711/What_is_Mitochondrial_Disease.htm

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by jonmoulton
Mon Sep 08, 2014 5:23 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Mitochondrial DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 67

Re: Mitochondrial DNA

Does Mitochondrial DNA have anything to do with physical traits, such as hair color, eye color, size etc? As far as I know, no. mtDNA encodes some of the various components for the mitochondria such as the ETC (Electron Transport Chain) ...

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by Zargo
Sun Sep 07, 2014 5:02 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Mitochondrial DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 67

Mitochondrial DNA

Does Mitochondrial DNA have anything to do with physical traits, such as hair color, eye color, size etc?

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by Hannamerika
Sat Sep 06, 2014 7:10 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Mitochondrial DNA
Replies: 2
Views: 67

Re: Chromatin

... of this post). Counting chromosomal centromeres, there are 46 centromeres total. After replication there are still 46 centromeres, but the mass of DNA and number of chromatids have doubled (and so you get the X-shaped chromosomes you typically see in textbook cartoons). At this point you have twice ...

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by jonmoulton
Thu Sep 04, 2014 3:04 pm
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Chromatin
Replies: 2
Views: 134

Chromatin

If DNA residing in the cell is loosly packed DNA called chromatin, and if in the Interphase the chromatin replicates to prepare for mitosis, then it must be that when the chromatin replicated there were only 23 modules of DNA ...

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by Hannamerika
Thu Sep 04, 2014 9:12 am
 
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Chromatin
Replies: 2
Views: 134
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