Dictionary » C » Chromosome

Chromosome

Definition

noun, plural: chromosomes

A structure within the cell that bears the genetic material as a threadlike linear strand of DNA bonded to various proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, or as a circular strand of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and in the mitochondrion and chloroplast of certain eukaryotes.


Supplement

In eukaryotes, the chromosomes appear as threadlike strand that condense into thicker structures and aligns on the metaphase plate during mitosis. Humans normally have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each with a characteristic length and banding pattern. Chromosomes occur in pairs (in most somatic cells) since one member of each pair comes from the mother and the other from the father. In most prokaryotes, the chromosome is usually a circular strand of DNA; hence, the entire genome is carried on only one chromosome. In viruses, the chromosome may appear as short linear or circular structure containing the DNA or RNA molecule often lacking any structural proteins.


Word origin: from the Greek chroma = color + soma = body.

Related forms: chromosomal (adjective).
Related terms: w chromosome, marker chromosome, ring chromosome, Y chromosome, X chromosome, lampbrush chromosome, homologous chromosome, chromosome puffs, chromosome rosette, chromosome satellite, Christchurch chromosome.


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Need some help with a question

In the cell cycle, at which stages do two chromatids make up one chromosome? (Can be multiple answers) a. beginning of mitosis b. end of G1 phase c. beginning of S (Synthesis) d. end of mitosis e. beginning of G2 phase

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by nillkill
Sat Mar 22, 2014 5:49 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Need some help with a question
Replies: 0
Views: 154

Meiosis prophase I crossover

“Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosomal_crossover Question: Due to the multiple layers of winding, how can parts of the ...

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by gs99
Fri Mar 07, 2014 9:23 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Meiosis prophase I crossover
Replies: 0
Views: 188

Re:

... (C, N) is 70 pm and smaller. That's 20-times less. However, you may be interested in the new one-molecule sequencing methods. And separation of chromosomes by dissection by laser is also nothing new. This is not a problem again. After scanning slices should not be necessary. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5292236&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F5238710%2F5292053%2F05292236.pdf%3Farnumber%3D5292236 ...

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by enarees
Wed Feb 26, 2014 6:57 pm
 
Forum: Microbiology
Topic: Slicing frozen chromosomes with lasers and scanning with SEM
Replies: 4
Views: 328

Totipotent Stem Cell From Molecular Components

... I start with the cell membrane or the nucleus and nucleolus(both are very important)? Q2 The pace of DNA replication is 8 2/3 hours for every chromosome and 2097152 of each chromosome in 1 week. Is that just an estimate because I know that it is 8 2/3 hours per replication origin. Q3 Once ...

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by caters
Sun Feb 02, 2014 10:58 pm
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Totipotent Stem Cell From Molecular Components
Replies: 0
Views: 673

A question regarding PCR

probably, your microsatellite is part of the chromosome, right? So there will be much more than 7 bp and it will be on both sides. Yes, the polymerase will amplify the chain until the conditions change (i.e. end of amplification step) or until ...

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by JackBean
Sat Jan 18, 2014 2:36 pm
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: A question regarding PCR
Replies: 1
Views: 520
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