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Branches of biology

Branches of Biology

Biology, the scientific study of life, includes several relevant branches. Below is a list of major branches of biology with a brief description for each.

Agriculture - science and practice of producing crops and livestock from the natural resources of the earth.

Anatomy - study of the animal form, particularly human body

Astrobiology - branch of biology concerned with the effects of outer space on living organisms and the search for extraterrestrial life.

Biochemistry - the study of the structure and function of cellular components, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules, and of their functions and transformations during life processes

Bioclimatology - a science concerned with the influence of climates on organisms, for instance the effects of climate on the development and distribution of plants, animals, and humans

Bioengineering - or biological engineering, is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems.

Biogeography - a science that attempts to describe the changing distributions and geographic patterns of living and fossil species of plants and animals

Bioinformatics - information technology as applied to the life sciences, especially the technology used for the collection, storage, and retrieval of genomic data

Biomathematics - mathematical biology or biomathematics is an interdisciplinary field of academic study which aims at modelling natural, biological processes using mathematical techniques and tools. It has both practical and theoretical applications in biological research.

Biophysics - or biological physics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the theories and methods of physical sciences to questions of biology

Biotechnology - applied science that is concerned with biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use

Botany - the scientific study of plants

Cell biology - the study of cells at the microscopic or at the molecular level. It includes studying the cells’ physiological properties, structures, organelles, interactions with their environment, life cycle, division and apoptosis

Chronobiology - a science that studies time-related phenomena in living organisms

Conservation Biology - concerned with the studies and schemes of habitat preservation and species protection for the purpose of alleviating extinction crisis and conserving biodiversity

Cryobiology - the study of the effects of low temperatures on living organisms

Developmental Biology - the study of the processes by which an organism develops from a zygote to its full structure

Ecology - the scientific study of the relationships between plants, animals, and their environment

Ethnobiology - a study of the past and present human interactions with the environment, for instance the use of diverse flora and fauna by indigenous societies

Evolutionary Biology - a subfield concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i.e. their evolution

Freshwater Biology - a science concerned with the life and ecosystems of freshwater habitats

Genetics - a science that deals with heredity, especially the mechanisms of hereditary transmission and the variation of inherited characteristics among similar or related organisms

Geobiology - a science that combines geology and biology to study the interactions of organisms with their environment

Immunobiology - a study of the structure and function of the immune system, innate and acquired immunity, the bodily distinction of self from nonself, and laboratory techniques involving the interaction of antigens with specific antibodies

Marine Biology - study of ocean plants and animals and their ecological relationships

Medicine - the science which relates to the prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease

Microbiology - the branch of biology that deals with microorganisms and their effects on other living organisms

Molecular Biology - the branch of biology that deals with the formation, structure, and function of macromolecules essential to life, such as nucleic acids and proteins, and especially with their role in cell replication and the transmission of genetic information

Mycology - the study of fungi

Neurobiology - the branch of biology that deals with the anatomy and physiology and pathology of the nervous system

Paleobiology - the study of the forms of life existing in prehistoric or geologic times, as represented by the fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms

Parasitology - the study of parasites and parasitism

Pathology - the study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences

Pharmacology - the study of preparation and use of drugs and synthetic medicines

Physiology - the biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts

Protistology - the study of protists

Psychobiology - the study of mental functioning and behavior in relation to other biological processes

Toxicology - the study of how natural or man-made poisons cause undesirable effects in living organisms

Virology - study of viruses

Zoology - The branch of biology that deals with animals and animal life, including the study of the structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals

Ethology - the study of animal behavior

Entomology - the scientific study of insects

Ichthyology - the study of fishes

Herpetology - the study of reptiles and amphibians

Ornithology - the study of birds

Mammalogy - the study of mammals

Primatology - the science that deals with primates

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