(Science: statistics) in a clinical trial, bias refers to effects that a conclusion that may be incorrect as, for example, when a researcher or patient knows what treatment is being given. to avoid bias, a blinded study may be done.

Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation.

bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

the basic form of differentiation for all living beings self/ non-self. The basic standard differentiation which also has the fundamental deviation= bias in all intellectual understanding of all individuals as opposed to common sense which can be articulated by a group of individuals.

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