(Science: cell biology) a long process of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells.
Each nerve cell has one axon, which can be over a foot long. A nerve cell communicates with another nerve cell by transmitting signals from the branches at the end of its axon. At the terminal end of the axon, the impulses are transmitted to other nerve cells or to effector organs.
in the peripheral nervous system, the larger (myelinated) axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath formed by concentric layers of plasma membrane of the schwann cell.
in the central nervous system, the function of the schwann cell is supplied by oligodendrocytes (oligodendroglia).