Adenosine is found in all living organisms as a structural component of important biomolecules such as DNA and RNA. It is also a major molecular component of ATP, ADP, and AMP. It is thus involved in various physiologic processes such as energy transfer (e.g. as ATP) and signal transduction (i.e. as cAMP). It also acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, presumably in promoting sleep.
IUPAC name: (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diol
Molecular formula: C10H13N5O4
Synonym: Adenine riboside, beta-D-Adenosine.