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ATP

Definition

noun

(biochemistry)

(1) Abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate, empirical formula: C10H16N5O13P3

(2) An organic compound composed of adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups, hence, the name.


Supplement

ATP is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds. It releases energy when it is broken down (hydrolyzed) into ADP (or Adenosine Diphosphate). The energy is used for many metabolic processes. Hence, ATP is considered as the universal energy currency for metabolism.

ATP is produced via cellular respiration in the mitochondria and photosynthesis in chloroplasts.

Its functions are for intracellular energy transport for various metabolic processes including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division. It is also used as a substrate by kinases that phosphorylate proteins and lipids, and by adenylate cyclase to produce cyclic AMP.


Word origin: from abbreviation of adenosine triphosphate.

Compare: AMP, ADP.
See also: cellular respiration.


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Re: Increase in free energy in glycolysis

... negative (i.e. the the magnitude of the free energy is becoming greater). Thus as the chaos increases the free energy continues to increase. The ATP usage in the two steps: hexokinase making glucose-6-phosphate and PFK1 making Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate is made to overcome the activation energy ...

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by daniel.kurz
Wed Feb 05, 2014 3:03 am
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Increase in free energy in glycolysis
Replies: 3
Views: 753

Re:

... question,so they probably want to know, whether you know that TCA runs aerobically only, althoughit doesn't require oxygen per se. Thus it's 200 ATPs from glycolysis (2 per 1 Glc) and could be additional 200 from TCA (1 per 1 acetyl-CoA). The TCA or Krebs cycle only occurs if the ETC(electron ...

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by caters
Mon Feb 03, 2014 4:37 am
 
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: ATP produced by human cells in an anaerobic chamber. LOST!
Replies: 2
Views: 1841

Increase in free energy in glycolysis

... in a general biology textbook. It says that in the first 5 steps the free energy increases with each step. Two of those steps are powered by ATP, but the rest are not. In those other steps, how does the free energy increase? What powers it? Thanks.

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by cadamcross
Sat Feb 01, 2014 2:25 am
 
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Increase in free energy in glycolysis
Replies: 3
Views: 753

Reasons why spontaneous human combustion is impossible?

There is the H+ leakage in mitochondria (brown adipose tissue). However, human body contains only small amount of ATP at a moment, although it burns like few kgs per day (it's produced and consumed all the time). I'd say the point No. 3 is very important. If you have 70 kg person, ...

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by JackBean
Wed Dec 04, 2013 9:41 pm
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Reasons why spontaneous human combustion is impossible?
Replies: 10
Views: 2087

Re: Reasons why spontaneous human combustion is impossible?

It would be interesting to calculate the energy released if all the body's nucleotide triphosphates (e.g. ATP) were to simultaneously hydrolyze. I see no mechanism for that happening, but that should represent a pretty good stock of potential energy.

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by jonmoulton
Tue Dec 03, 2013 4:07 pm
 
Forum: General Discussion
Topic: Reasons why spontaneous human combustion is impossible?
Replies: 10
Views: 2087
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