Dictionary » A » ATP





(1) Abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate, empirical formula: C10H16N5O13P3

(2) An organic compound composed of adenosine (an adenine ring and a ribose sugar) and three phosphate groups, hence, the name.


ATP is a nucleotide that contains a large amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds. It releases energy when it is broken down (hydrolyzed) into ADP (or Adenosine Diphosphate). The energy is used for many metabolic processes. Hence, ATP is considered as the universal energy currency for metabolism.

ATP is produced via cellular respiration in the mitochondria and photosynthesis in chloroplasts.

Its functions are for intracellular energy transport for various metabolic processes including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division. It is also used as a substrate by kinases that phosphorylate proteins and lipids, and by adenylate cyclase to produce cyclic AMP.

Word origin: from abbreviation of adenosine triphosphate.

Compare: AMP, ADP.
See also: cellular respiration.

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Re: Mitochondrial DNA

... far as I know, no. mtDNA encodes some of the various components for the mitochondria such as the ETC (Electron Transport Chain) proteins such as ATP synthase and it's own ribosomal genes. Here is a pretty good representation of what mtDNA looks like. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Mitochondrial_DNA_en.svg

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by Zargo
Sun Sep 07, 2014 5:02 am
Forum: Genetics
Topic: Mitochondrial DNA
Replies: 1
Views: 44

Re: Food to ATP energy?

... means one mole of glucose weighs 180 grams. One mole of glucose could, at 100% efficiency (theoretical yield) be converted into about 30 moles of ATP. Many biology textbooks will state 38, but they do not account for the cost of transporting pyruvate and ADP into the mitochondria, and other costs ...

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by tmbirkhead
Thu Aug 14, 2014 1:11 am
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Food to ATP energy?
Replies: 2
Views: 1017

Re: Food to ATP energy?

... recommended daily intake is more than 2000 kilo calories! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy#Recommended_daily_intake The daily turnover of ATP is equivalent of about 1000 kcal.

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by JackBean
Sat Jun 28, 2014 12:50 pm
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Food to ATP energy?
Replies: 2
Views: 1017

Food to ATP energy?

... I also suppose some of the energy is lost during the oxidation of those nutritients as well. The rest of the energy is used to convert ATD to ATP. Now, in one of my mothers older medical books, and many links on the internet afterwards (such as this one http://www.healthvalue.net/mitochondrial_energy.html), ...

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by Viktor
Fri Jun 27, 2014 10:50 pm
Forum: Cell Biology
Topic: Food to ATP energy?
Replies: 2
Views: 1017

Re: Increase in free energy in glycolysis

... negative (i.e. the the magnitude of the free energy is becoming greater). Thus as the chaos increases the free energy continues to increase. The ATP usage in the two steps: hexokinase making glucose-6-phosphate and PFK1 making Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate is made to overcome the activation energy ...

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by daniel.kurz
Wed Feb 05, 2014 3:03 am
Forum: Molecular Biology
Topic: Increase in free energy in glycolysis
Replies: 3
Views: 2187
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