Adenosine diphosphate

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Definition

noun

(biochemistry) A nucleotide made up of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate units; having a chemical formula: C10H15N5O10P2; the product of ATP de-phosphorylation via ATPases to release energy; and can be converted to ATP by phosphorylation (addition of phosphate and energy) via ATP synthases to store energy


Supplement

Adenine triphosphate (ADP) is a nucleotide comprised of a nucleoside and two phosphate groups. The nucleoside is a pentose sugar backbone with a purine base adenine attached to it (at the 1' carbon). The phosphate groups are bonded in series to the 5' carbon of the pentose sugar. ADP is essential in photosynthesis and glycolysis. It is the end-product when adenosine triphosphate ATP loses one of its phosphate groups. The energy released in the process is used to power up many vital cellular processes. ADP reconverts to ATP by the addition of a phosphate group to ADP. This occurs in processes such as substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation.

ADP is also important during the activation of platelets. It is stored inside the platelet and is released to interact with ADP receptors (e.g. P2Y1 receptors, P2Y12 receptors, etc.) on platelets.


IUPAC name: [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl phosphono hydrogen phosphate

Chemical formula: C10H15N5O10P2

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