Difference between revisions of "Mitochondria"

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'''Definition'''
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#redirect [[mitochondrion]]
 
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''noun, singular: [[mitochondrion]]''
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[[Spherical]] or [[rod]]-shaped [[organelles]] found within the [[cytoplasm]] of [[eukaryotic]] [[cells]], and are referred to as the “powerhouse of the cell'' since they act as the site for the production of high-[[energy]] [[compounds]] (e.g. [[ATP]]), which are vital [[energy]] source for several [[cellular]] processes.
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'''Supplement'''
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They produce large amounts of [[energy]] through [[oxidative phosphorylation]] of [[organic]] molecules during [[cellular respiration]]. That is, they are capable of using [[glucose]] and [[oxygen]] to produce [[energy]] (and releasing [[carbon dioxide]] and water in the process) for use in many [[metabolic]] processes. Thus, it is not surprising to find several mitochondria in high [[energy]]-requiring [[cells]], such as [[muscle]] [[cells]].
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They are semi-[[autonomous]], self-reproducing [[organelles]] because they contain their own [[genome]]. In fact, their [[DNA]] has become an important tool in tracking [[genetic]] histories since their [[genetic material]] is present in only one copy, and does not recombine in [[reproduction]].
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According to the [[endosymbiotic theory]], mitochondria might have been the [[remnant]]s of early [[bacteria]] engulfed by [[ancient]] [[eukaryotic]] [[cells]] a billion years ago that might have evolved and become [[energy]]-yielding structures within [[eukaryotic]] [[cells]] at present.
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Word origin: from Gk. ''mitos'' - thread + ''khondrion'' - little granule.
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<br />Related forms: mitochondrial (adjective).
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<br />Also known as: ''[[chondriosome]]''.
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<br />See also: [[cellular respiration]], [[ATP]].
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Latest revision as of 12:48, 31 March 2017

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