Human Anatomy, Physiology, and Medicine. Anything human!
When you post a long link this makes the page awfully hard to read because the line is not broken, and the page do not fit anymore on a normal screen. To avoid this two solutions:
1- Nice and elegant, use the BBCode functions and type [url=MY_LONG_LINK]any word or sentence[/url] the "anyword or sentence will the become an hyperlink and be cut to size in the page if necessary.
2-Use the http://www.tinyurl.com service and post the relevant tiny url that you will get.
Thanks for all the readers.
Science has proof without any certainty. Creationists have certainty without
any proof. (Ashley Montague)
dont expect anyone to read but thought a few of you might like.
Their heads are black and their bodies seem already to have begun to vary in color. The body above is furnished with sparse, stiff hairs, each arising from a tubercle. I have often watched the newly hatched boll while in the cotton fields. When hatched from an egg which had been deposited upon a leaf, they invariably made their first meal on the substance of the leaf, and then wandered about for a longer or shorter space of time, evidently seeking a boll or flower bud. It was always interesting to watch this seemingly aimless search of the young worm, crawling first down the leaf stem and then back, then dropping a few inches by a silken thread and then painfully working its way back again, until, at last, it found the object of its search, or fell to the ground where it was destroyed by ants. As the boll worms increase in size a most wonderful diversity of color and marking becomes apparent. In color different worms will vary from a brilliant green to a deep pink or dark brown, exhibiting almost every conceivable intermediate stage from an immaculate, unstriped specimen to one with regular spots and many stripes. The green worms were more common than those of any other color—a common variety was a very light green. When these worms put in an appearance it raised a great excitement among the planters. We did not use any poison to destroy them, as I learn is the method now employed.
In the mid 1950s as cotton production reached a peak in the Canete Valley, organochlorinated insecticides were in intensive use. Several pests had already developed resistence to these pesticides and heavier dosages and more frequent applications became necessary. Six new species of secondary pests made their appearance and cotton yields fell sharply.
A number of changes in pest control practices were introduced in response to this crisis including the banning of synthetic organic pesticide use, the reintroduction of beneficial insects, crop diversification schemes, the planting of early maturing varieties and the destruction of cotton crop residue. Pest problems declined dramatically and pest control costs were substantially reduced (Hansen, 1987).
Thanks Systemic....there is another worm to that starts w/ letter S, but can not think of it at moment, but great find!
Evidence that a plant virus switched hosts to infect a vertebrate and then recombined with a vertebrate-infecting virus. 1999
There are several similarities between the small, circular, single-stranded-DNA genomes of circoviruses that infect vertebrates and the nanoviruses that infect plants. We analyzed circovirus and nanovirus replication initiator protein (Rep) sequences and confirmed that an N-terminal region in circovirus Reps is similar to an equivalent region in nanovirus Reps. However, we found that the remaining C-terminal region is related to an RNA-binding protein (protein 2C), encoded by picorna-like viruses, and we concluded that the sequence encoding this region of Rep was acquired from one of these single-stranded RNA viruses, probably a calicivirus, by recombination. This is clear evidence that a DNA virus has incorporated a gene from an RNA virus, and the fact that none of these viruses code for a reverse transcriptase suggests that another agent with this capacity was involved. Circoviruses were thought to be a sister-group of nanoviruses, but our phylogenetic analyses, which take account of the recombination, indicate that circoviruses evolved from a nanovirus. A nanovirus DNA was transferred from a plant to a vertebrate. This transferred DNA included the viral origin of replication; the sequence conservation clearly indicates that it maintained the ability to replicate. In view of these properties, we conclude that the transferred DNA was a kind of virus and the transfer was a host-switch. We speculate that this host-switch occurred when a vertebrate was exposed to sap from an infected plant. All characterized caliciviruses infect vertebrates, suggesting that the host-switch happened first and that the recombination took place in a vertebrate.
Psittacine beak and feather disease virus nucleotide sequence analysis and its relationship to porcine circovirus, plant circoviruses, and chicken anaemia virus.
Cloning and sequencing of the circular, single-stranded DNA of one isolate of psittacine beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) demonstrate a genome composed of a circular molecule of 1993 nucleotide bases. An analysis of the assembled replicative form demonstrated seven open reading frames (ORFs) (three in the virion strand and four in the complementary strand), potentially encoding seven viral proteins of >8.7 kDa. High amino acid sequence similarity was demonstrated between a potential 33.3-kDa protein product of ORF1 of BFDV and the replicase-associated protein of porcine circovirus (PCV), subterranean clover stunt virus, and faba bean necrotic yellows virus. However, significant similarity in nucleotide or amino acid sequences was not present between BFDV and chicken anaemia virus. A potential stem-loop structure similar to that found in PCV and plant circoviruses was present in the putative encapsidated strand of the BFDV genome. At the top of this structure, a nonanucleotide motif (TAGTATTAC) similar to that of PCV, plant circoviruses, and geminiviruses also was recognised. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of ORF2 of BFDV and PCV demonstrated 29.1% identity, and in both viruses, ORF2 is located on the complementary strand, beginning close to or within the hairpin stem. Our findings provide further evidence of a close relationship among BFDV, PCV, and plant circoviruses but not chicken anaemia virus. Copyright 1998 Academic Press
Have any of you seen this video. it's off subject.
Somehow I don't think we are going to get much more official help on this.
Nov 12, 2001—Mar 25, 2002: 13 renowned microbiologists mysteriously die over the span of less than five months. All but one are killed or murdered under unusual circumstances. Some are world leaders in developing weapons-grade biological plagues. Others are the best in figuring out how to stop millions from dying because of biological weapons. Still others are experts in the theory of bioterrorism. [Globe and Mail, 5/4/02] Nov 12: Benito Que, 52, an expert in infectious diseases—killed in carjacking, later deemed possible stroke. [Globe and Mail, 5/4/02] Nov. 16: Don Wiley, 57, one of the world's leading researchers of deadly viruses—body found in Mississippi River. [CNN, 12/22/01] Nov 21: Dr. Vladimir Pasechnik, 64, an expert in adapting germs and viruses for military use—stroke. [New York Times, 11/23/01] Dec 10: Dr. Robert Schwartz, 57, a leading researcher on DNA sequencing analysis—slain at home. [Washington Post, 12/12/01] Dec 14: Nguyen Van Set, 44, his research organization had just come to fame for discovering a virus which can be modified to affect smallpox—dies in an airlock in his lab. [Sydney Morning Herald, 12/12/01] Jan 2002: Ivan Glebov (bandit attack) and Alexi Brushlinski (killed in Moscow), both world-renowned members of the Russian Academy of Science. [Pravda, 2/9/02] Feb 9: Victor Korshunov, 56, head of the microbiology sub-faculty at the Russian State Medical University—killed by cranial injury. [Pravda, 2/9/02] Feb 11: Ian Langford, 40, one of Europe's leading experts on environmental risk—murdered in home. [London Times, 2/13/02] Feb 28 (2): Tanya Holzmayer, 46, helped create drugs that interfere with replication of the virus that causes AIDS, and Guyang Huang, 38, a brilliant scholar highly regarded in genetics—murder/suicide. [San Jose Mercury News, 2/28/02] Mar 24: David Wynn-Williams, 55, an astrobiologist with NASA Ames Research Center—killed while jogging. [London Times, 3/27/02] Mar 25: Steven Mostow, 63, an expert on the threat of bioterrorism—private plane crash. [KUSA TV/NBC, 3/26/02]
London, Skytroll and everyone,
I have been off the internet for a few days and am in the process of reading all the posts I've missed but as all of you are prolific writers like myself it may take me a while to read them all. I just wanted to say that I have been having good results with what I am doing and if anyone would like to talk to me about that feel free to call me at 847-731-2649. The info is free to anyone wanting it.
Thank you and will take note of offer.
Have had this link before e-coli outbreak, Seems going after the Natural Folks, just don't get sicker anyone.
I think we need to think about it.
Read the comment section:
"Verotoxin is a converting phage and believed to account for the recent emergence of 0157:H7 as a new pathogen"
Haven't been looking at pig health. They were to put bacteriophages on sausages instead of salt.
What they do not tell us is what kind of virus is in the phage that is to be used to put on meat to prevent the bacteria listeriosis.
Bacteriophages in the past, I can bet you, are what caused Polio, to begin with, are what caused many mutations in humans causing many neurodegenerate diseases, neuromuscular, Downs, CF and many more.
Has the AMA not learned anything, I cannot believe they are that naive, to use something that was used before and that killed many people. Russia and France can verify that. History will repeat itself, unless awareness is present.
This is sad, when food is used as a weapon.
Monsanto, Roundup Ready and glycophosate, and now Verotoxin.
Let's see who created the Verotoxin?
More later on this. Phages are bad news.
This is just the beginning.
A weapon by who against the small farmer?
here we have evolution, gm farming, animals, humans sharing genes of virus and bacterias and it is in the environment.
And there is more.......
Lets not let this one ride, because it is very relevant to our disease.
http://www.agbioworld.org/newsletter_wm ... ewsid=1321
Go to near bottom for articles on E-coli 0157: H7 and more.
There will be more. Seems the Verotoxin may have been tried to kill virus in the green monkey kidney that was used as Polio Vaccine on a few of us.
Now, that takes us to another place doesn't it?
Speaking of E Coli, in traffic today, there was a car in front of me-
with the vanity plate "E Coli". Odd, I thought. A black Lincoln. No joke.
Bald guy. Must be making money off the stuff somehow?
As for the mystery- the ongoing "guess what the fibers are" mystery,
I've long thought it to be some byproduct of Lyme/Chronic fatigue type
illnesses. You see people on health boards for CFS and Lyme that
mention the fibers (if they have a jewelers loop or a microscope).
That, in my opinion, is why the others don't know they have the fiber
involvement. No scope.
And with the Lyme, as has been pointed out at numerous links to
include the http://www.lymephotos.com - comes the nematode.
No news there.
This, however, is news- what do you think guys?
July 21, 2006
Giving worms a taste of their own medicine
Filed under: Drug-Like Compounds, Europe, Discoveries, Innovations and Patents, Research Projects, Press Releases — admin _at_ 6:41 pm
The humble nematode worm could prove invaluable in screening new compounds for active drugs, new research published today suggests.
Soil-dwelling nematodes have a programmed avoidance response to harmful chemicals, which they detect through nerves exposed to their environment. Scientists led by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have genetically modified the worm C. elegans to make human proteins called receptors in these nerves: the modified worms detect and avoid human signalling molecules and drug candidates.
The exciting results, reported today, 20 July 2006, in the open-access journal BMC Biology, promise a simple assay that can be used to screen thousands of compounds for activity against human proteins - a foundation of drug development.
“The worm is a great tool to understand biology,” said Dr Michelle Teng of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, a lead author on the report. “Because we understand it so well it has a simple well studied nervous system the role for each nerve has been mapped in detail. We also have a good understanding of the signalling mechanisms in nerves that drive the responses.”
“We showed that the biochemical response of the receptors emulated that seen in humans. It is just that, in the worm, the effects of that response are to make them crawl away from the chemical stimulus. This simple response could be used to test many unknown drug candidates.”
Medicines often interact with receptors, which are ’sensors’ at the surface of cells. The team introduced the somatostatin receptor (Sstr2) and the chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) in the nerves that respond to environmental cues. Somatostatin is a hormone that mediates a wide range of activities in humans and chemokines play an important role in the immune system. The CCR5 receptor used is also the gateway that HIV/AIDS virus uses to enter cells. Both receptors belong to a receptor family called GPCRs, which represent up to 50% of current drug targets.
The response was specific. In tests, worms responded by avoiding somatostatin or chemokine placed in their paths only when the appropriate receptor was made in the appropriate nerves.
“We have shown that we can hijack the cellular machinery of the worm so that the human receptor proteins drive the avoidance response,” explained Dr John McCafferty, Principal Investigator at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and senior author. “We chose two receptors with widely differing functions in humans. The responses were specific to the compounds we added and could be inhibited in the same way a response in humans could be inhibited.”
The worms could also be desensitized by pre-exposure to somatostatin or chemokine: desensitization is an important part of normal human response, because it ensures that our receptors can recover for a fresh round of stimulus. This is the first time that activation has been programmed in these nerves and the team have shown that the human receptors integrate into the worm signalling machinery.
“Systems exist already to study the response of cells in test-tubes to added compounds,” continued Dr McCafferty. “However, because these are soil-dwelling worms which feed on bacteria, we could test crude samples for drug candidates.”
Together, these results make us very optimistic that these models will be widely applicable and that development of a high-throughput system is feasible.
The team used a rapid sorting system to isolate the genetically modified worms. Although for this study, worm responses were scored under the microscope, automation could be integrated to achieve a higher rate of testing.
The worm model can also help to define which regions of a novel compound are important for its biological effect, which can be crucial for producing effective drugs. The team were able to use the worm assay to identify four important building blocks within somatostatin which are known to be necessary for its effect.
“These results show the power of simple organisms such as the worm to help us not only in our understanding of biology but also in the search for new ways to improve healthcare,” said Professor Ronald Plasterk, Professor of Developmental Genetics at the University of Utrecht and Director of the Hubrecht Laboratory, in the Netherlands. “It is a nice irony of history that the worm was chosen for biomedical research by Sydney Brenner forty years ago in Cambridge, only a few miles from the Sanger Institute. Then twenty years ago John Sulston started to make a gene map of the animal, and eventually read its sequence as the first of all animal genomes.”
“And now a new generation of researchers again in the Cambridge area uses it to test candidate drugs that are immediately relevant to human health.”
"When you dine with the devil, bring a long spoon."
In response to this last post:
Opinion could be that you also have to mention Sanger and trypanosomes.
"Scientists led by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute have genetically modified the worm C. elegans to make human proteins called receptors in these nerves: the modified worms detect and avoid human signalling molecules and drug candidates"
"Molecules binding to the surface of the trypanosome, including antibodies, have been found also to be engulfed....
Therefore, in addition to changing its surface coat of proteins to avoid antibody binding, the parasite seems capable of engulfing antibodies, and possibly in this way of neutralizing their effect"
Trypanosoma brucei Genome Project
The T. brucei project at the Sanger Institute encompasses sequencing the parasite's genome in conjunction with ... Related Trypanosoma sequencing projects ...
http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/T_brucei/ - 19k - 15 Sep 2006 - Cached - Similar pages
Trypanosoma vivax Genome Project
The Wellcome Trust funded the Sanger Institute Pathogen Sequencing Unit (PSU) to ... the nuclear genome of the livestock-infective Trypanosoma vivax. ...
http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Projects/T_vivax/ - 18k - Cached - Similar pages
[ More results from http://www.sanger.ac.uk ]
Last edited by tamtam on Sun Sep 17, 2006 12:30 pm, edited 1 time in total.
Example: model organisms
"In their recent Perspective “Whither model organism research” (25 Mar., p. 1885), S. Fields and M. Johnston discussed the roles of model organisms in biology, pointing out that yeast and E. coli and other members of a “Security Council” of model organisms were workhorses that were used to discover and dissect many fundamental and conserved processes in
"Yet it is increasingly evident that a gene product may have diverse functions in different cells or tissues, at different points in the life of those cells or tissues, or under various physiological circumstances"
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/eletters/ ... /1885#1550
The reasons for artificial genes, to prevent infections and diseases on the New Planet Earth?
. Agency interests in microbial genomics. NASA seeks to understand the nature of life in the universe and to assure crew health and productivity for increasing periods of time and at increasing distances beyond Earth. NASA's primary interests are in functional genomics of extreme environments, including the space environment, computational biology, bioinformatics, in situ genomic analyses, medical genomics, and genomics as a basis for bioengineering. A high priority activity is to develop the tools that enable correlation of environmental changes with changes in gene expression, and correlate these with resultant gene products, metabolic effects, and structural changes over multiple generations.
NASA's astrobiology program seeks to understand life in the universe—its origins, evolution, distribution and destiny. Microbial genomics plays an important part in all of these endeavors. Through genomic archaeology, clues to the nature of the earliest life on Earth can be gleaned, and insights into the process by which life and the environment co-evolved on the early Earth can be obtained. These studies provide important scientific information in their own right, but also develop a basis for comparing and interpreting information obtained from other worlds in our solar system and beyond it. Most of Earth's biological evolution was dominated by microbes. If life exists beyond Earth, there may be many more worlds dominated by microbial life than by higher life forms. Functional genomic studies of microbes in extreme environments on Earth, especially those conducted in situ, provide models for understanding the limits of life and the nature of habitable environments. This information is essential in understanding the potential for life elsewhere in the universe and for developing strategies to detect it.
Microbial genomics is essential to supporting human exploration beyond Earth. Microbes represent a health hazard for exploration crews, either in their natural state or through possible mutations brought about by novel selection pressures, including the closed environment of the spacecraft, microgravity and space radiation. For the future, habitable artificial ecologies designed to operate beyond Earth over decadal time periods will almost certainly employ microbes as part of their life support strategies, including those that are bioengineered for specific functions. Finally, microbial genomics plays an important role in understanding whether terrestrial life can establish a successful evolutionary future beyond Earth by natural or engineered means and how that may be achieved.
The WHOLE FEDERAL REPORT:
"Report Contributors Include:
Margaret Werner-Washburne, NSF, coordinator
Bart Kuhn, Eric Eisenstadt, DOD
Daniel Drell, DOE
Kathie Olsen, NASA
Judy Vaitukaitis, NIH-NCRR
Michael Gottlieb, NIH-NIAID
Elise Feingold, Bettie Graham, NIH-NHGRI
Dennis Mangan, NIH-NIDCR
Marcus Rhoades, NIH-NIGMS
Eugene Koonin, NIH-NLM-NCBI
Linda Beth Schilling and Gregory Vasquez, NIST
Mike Perdue, Caird Rexroad, USDA-ARS
Peter Johnson, Michael Roberts, Ann Lichens-Park, Sally Rockey, USDA-CSREES
With special help from Lynn Fletcher, NSF
http://www.ostp.gov/html/microbial/2000 ... 0203_1.htm
http://www.ostp.gov/html/microbial/2000 ... 0203_2.htm
Like I said before, each agency doing its part...........
All that money.............
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