About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here.
Please help edit.
Two-thirds of the world was living in endemic areas during the early 1900’s. 250 million cases with about 2.5 million deaths per year were estimated in 1950.
During the 1970’s efforts to reduce the risk of malaria transmission was in full effect. Malaria was being eradicated from Europe, North America (excluding some parts of Mexico), and the Caribbean, most of South America, Singapore, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Australia.
In 1988, malaria was estimated to be 110 million cases a year strong with close to 270 million people infected. However the momentum for eradicating this disease has severely declined.
The main areas that are affected are Africa, South East Asia, India, and South America.
Deforestation and mining have increased risks in malaria in surrounding areas.
Malaria’s endemic territories have increased in size. Malaria is now spreading to new areas (India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, Turkey, and the Middle East).
The majority of deaths come from children. Children die at a rate of 4 per minute, 5,000 a day, and 35,000 a week.
Pregnant women, refugees, migrant workers, and nonimmune travelers are also in the high risk group.
The Anopheles genus of mosquitoes transmits malaria.
Anopheles gambiae is considered by many to be the most efficient malaria vector mosquito species in the world.
Vector mosquitoes spread malaria when feeding on blood. Sexual stages forms in the gut of the mosquitoes, a cyst forms which causes the mosquitoes to release sporozoites into the salivary glands. Once in the salivary glands the sporozoites can enter a different organism when the mosquitoes feed.
Two species of mosquitoes have developed resistance to insecticides. A. gambiae and A. funestus show resistance to several insecticides used in vector control.
The infected mosquito has to live 15 days before the parasites can mature and come out their sac into the salivary glands.
Over 60 species of anopheles mosquitoes have been identified as vectors for malaria. Distribution varies from country to country. By biting an infected person, a female mosquito sucks the gametocytes which are the sexual forms of the parasite. The gametocytes continue to the sexual stage of the cycle and the sporozoites eventually reach the salivary glands of the now infested mosquito. If the now infected female mosquito bites a human, the sporozoites will go into the human’s blood stream.
Malaria rarely spreads by inoculation of blood from an infected person to a healthy person.
Blood transfusion is common cause of transmission in endemic areas.
A mother can transfer malaria to a growing fetus.
Transmission can be found among drug addicts who share syringes and needles.
Many mammals, birds, and reptiles suffer from malaria. Malaria found in animals is usually different from they type found in humans.
The prime times for anopheles mosquito bites are between 5PM and 7 AM. The most bites occur during midnight.
Maybe a good idea to write about the fact that 20% of population in malaria affected population developed a heterozygous form of sickle cell anemia in order to protect them from malaria. Not sure if it relates to the topic, but i always found it interesting.
Also, if this is a scientifical paper on trnasmition of malaria you should write a more detailed story on the maturation of the protozoan inside the mosquito. I can provide the info if you wish...
I would follow Andrew, even go farther: start by the description of the disease (same as TB), it's cause, symptoms, treatments, prevention, resistance to treatments (quinine, artemisine) and to insecticides. That is also where you will give the You could place the sickle cell anemia in this part (Andrew is right, this is interesting: you show how a disease shaped humanity...)
Then either history or epidemiology. In the former explain a little more things: effects of deforestation, wars and cost of insecticide treatments 5consequence of teh ban of the cheap but dangerous DDT...)
Hope this helps
DDT was banned? I read that the mosquito evolved and DDT was no longer efficient
No DDT was banned because of its toxicity. Some people argue that it is removing 3rd world a cheap way to get rid of mosquitoes, other say that the benefits are not important enough compared to the ecological price. And The chemical company selling newer and more expensive molecule wont contradict them...
would definely be apreciated. As would any other additional infromation.
So you put it together at the end to form one big paper? That is Ok. If it's not like that, I seriously suggest at least one paragraph introduction with general knlowledge. Now, some memory jogging
The life cycle of plasmodium malariae takes place in 3 phases: skizogonic, gamogonic and sporogonic, but they take place in 2 hosts. The skizogonic phase takes place at human, once the parazite has got in via byte or lesion. The sporozoids get inside the endotelial cells of the human, become trofozoids, feed actively via difusion and then reproduce skyzogonic. The resulted merozoids attack new endotelial cells. This is the skyzogonic exoerytrocitary phase, when the desease does not manifest clinically. After a while, the new merozoids, formed after a few of such generations, get inside your red blood cells(this is where the name of Hemosporids comes). They feed and reproduce skyzogonic here also. because of the imense quantity of merozoids in your blood, as well as the toxins produced, you get a high fever and all other effects. This is the intraerytocitary skyzogonic phase. After many such generations, the trofozoids stop reproducing asexually, get rounder and turn into gamonts, that don't evolve in your blood. They get, via byte, in the body ofthe mosquito, rezist the mosquito's digestive juice, turn into macrogamets and microgamets(the last mobile), after fecundation takes place, the zygote is formed, that is called oocynet(becuase it can move like an amoeba). This guy walks through the the intestinal membrane, turns into an oocyst, in the general cavity of the artropod. Here, sporogony takes place, resulting in lots of sporozoids, that are set free. They migrate into the salivary glands via chemotactism. When the mosquito bytes me, the whole cycle starts all over again, resulting in me getting malaria.
I am sorry, i am almost sure I misstranslated some of the words, but i did my best. It is up to you to work with it, thus so it will result into a scientifical paper.
PS: coudn't remember anything, had to consult a book. I hate my memory!!
PPS: You so owe me a beer
Thats quite interesting.
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