Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a particular topic.
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could someone please help me with this research i need to do:
i require information on how the oxygen grabbers have adapted their haemoglobin to their environment. this covers for example the lama.
links to sources are idea but any information you can give like better search terms would be greatly appreciated
me, too has no idea on what is oxygen 'grabber' hemoglobin
but i do know that llamas live in area of high altitude. i think it is in the andes or himalaya
because of this the oxygen concentration is low. hence they have to have more red blood cells per unit in their blood. also their hemoglobin has higher affinity for oxygen
hope this helps
What I can tell you is that human hemoglobin proteins are made of 4 heme units each containing an iron atom that is necessary to oxygen grabbing. Perhars you should compare human and lama hemoglobin proteins to find out if they have different properties, just like that guy said before, high altitudes are poor in O2 so maybe the lama has more red blood cell wich makes respiration more efficient or it has different hemoglobin proteins.
Maybe the llama haemoglobine resembles the haemoglobine of human fetus? Which has a higher affinity for O2... It has 2 alpha and two gamma chains instead of 2 alpha and 2 beta
"As a biologist, I firmly believe that when you're dead, you're dead. Except for what you live behind in history. That's the only afterlife" - J. Craig Venter
Grabbers are the type of animals/organisms in low [O2] enviroment. Such as Llamas at high altitudes. If you look at the oxygen association of curve comparing the human, the llama ones shifts to the left. As they readily need oxygen as their have a high affinity of O2. Compared to lugworm who need O2 but their can wait and consume until the next tide.
To a Chemical Engineer like me (retired) the term "oxygen grabber" can mean chemicals like hemoglobin, or wet iron used to remove atmospheric oxygen in lab work, or even the presence of such materials in the workplace which may pose an industrial hazard (like the inside of a rusting steel tank). I stumbled onto this post looking for some alternative 'oxygen grabbers' to use for food storage (prevent rancidity).
However... on the biology side, I also wrote a book that discusses the way we humans and other animals consume oxygen. The rather presumptuous title is "First aid for a Heart Attack... and Other Muscle Cramps”, available through Amazon (ASIN: B00AFCYLXU). The book developed from my discovery of a technique to stop muscle cramps that I first started using in the 1960's.
The bottom line in the book is that current medical treatments for low blood oxygen, which is the source of most pain and heart attacks, completely ignore the influence of pressure. Yet, to an engineer there is a simple and obvious relationship between varying lung pressure and our oxygen uptake. I developed a breathing technique that increases blood oxygen and stops cramps without hyperventilating. Both my calculations and oximeter tests indicate a 20-30% increase in available oxygen concentration in the blood using the technique.
To the question, this discovery may also be a factor in your research. Camels (and related species) have the ability to tightly close their nostrils to avoid inhaling airborne sand in the desert. As they exhale, the restricted nasal passage would tend to pressurize their lungs. Is it possible that llamas and others also use this and similar mechanisms to increase their oxygen uptake when needed??? To me their obnoxious/funny practice of "spitting" (it is more like sneezing on command) is clear evidence that they regularly control the air pressure in their lungs 'as needed'.
In the book I humorously explain a lot of natural animal and human behavior that is related to oxygen increases using lung pressure, from a lion's roar to a La Maze class. Pressurizing the lungs and even holding your breath is a natural response to a need for more oxygen. For example, try lifting something heavy; most people hold their breath. I would think the llamas have 'learned' to use that to their advantage a long time ago.
In conclusion, you may be looking for subtle changes in the animal behaviors rather than changes in chemistry. Such pressure control changes could also be happening even in lower species. It just an idea.
In answer to the reason you posted I think people use silica-gel for keeping food dry. There may be health problems with it, but I thought it was still in common use.
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