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genetics questions

Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects.

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genetics questions

Postby angela » Thu May 19, 2005 11:10 pm

I''m studing for a test tomarrow and i need help with some of these questions

1. What is a karyotype? What information does it provide? How is one aquired?
2. Compare a chromosome to a gene. What is their function? What are they made of? How do they replicate thenselves?
3. Explain the difference between identical and faternal twins.
4. Define codominance and multiallelic traits and give an example of each.
5. What is an restriction enzyme? How can it be used? Explain the process used in recombinant DNA.
'6. Describe various genetic disordes such as Down Syndrom, Diabetes, and Hemoplilia.

thanks a lot for the help
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Postby thank.darwin » Fri May 20, 2005 1:08 am

I will answer the first question - a karyotype is all your chromosomes; all of your DNA; your genetic identity. One is not acquired... we all have a karyotype... When we are born and the genetic information from the sperm and the egg come together and form your karyotype.
- I don't know if I explained that well
No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong.
-Albert Einstein
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Postby mith » Fri May 20, 2005 1:19 am

It can either refer to all your chromosomes or a picture(photomicrograph) of all your chromosomes.
Living one day at a time;
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Accepting hardships as the pathway to peace;
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Re: genetics questions

Postby zami'87. » Fri May 20, 2005 10:17 am

ok.then I will answer 2.and 3. question. DNA is one component of chromosome.Gene is a fragment of DNA that carry genetic code for protein, tRNA,rRNA. So gene is a part of a chromosome. Chromosome is made of DNA coiled up around proteines-histones(4 kind in octamer and 1 apart also atached to DNA)
Identical-same genetic structure(from same egg and spermatozoid), fraternal twins- different genetic structure(originate from different eggs and different spermatozoids).
Who's next :lol: ?
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Restriction enzymes

Postby victor » Fri May 20, 2005 1:05 pm

I'll answer your 5th question...I hope my explanation is good suit for you... :wink:
Restriction enzymes is known as a pair of molecular "scissors" for cutting genes. The application of this "scissors" is when we want to make a recombinant gene. Of course that we only need certain genes in one chromosome to combine it with another one. In order to move certain genes that we need in making recombinant, we have to cut it by using restriction enzymes...Remember these are enzymes, so their work will be specific to cutting down certain bonds in the whole gene. Till now, I think there are more than 300 restriction enzymes that've been found....
This is the answer for 6th question..(my favourite topic)
Let's start it with Down Syndrome....Down Syndrome is a syndrome that happened because of mutation in 21st chromosome. When they do meiosis in the first stage, there's a nondisjunction (we can say that each chromatid fail to divide) till the last stage which is cytokinesis. The result is the 21st chromosome become triploid (normal one are diploid). The effect of this syndrome is very harmful...the patient will have some fail organs, low in IQ, bad nerve systems, the one sure thing is their life will not last long.
For hemophilia....this is kind of dissease that inheritable. The people that suffer this kind of dissease, their blood are hard to stop because they're low in thrombocytes. This dissease is inherited from the X chromosome, that's why most of the people that suffer from this dissease are men (because men only have one X chromoseme and when they get the recessive allele of hemophilia, it will be directly espressed to them in phenotype). For the women, if they get one of the recessive hemophilia allele, they only become carrier (because they have another X chromosome which contains dominant allele, so this dissease doesn't expressed directly)
For the diabetic....um, actually there're two diabetic disseases which is melitus diabetic and incipidus diabetic..which one do you want to ask???
I hope that you're satisfied with my answers. 8)
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Postby MrMistery » Fri May 20, 2005 6:28 pm

mithrilhack wrote:It can either refer to all your chromosomes or a picture(photomicrograph) of all your chromosomes.

Actually, this is a very often mistake. The representation on a piece of paper is called idiograme, it's not the same thing as a cariotype.
Well, guess there is nothing left for me to explain. Damn!
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Postby mith » Fri May 20, 2005 6:38 pm

Our dictionary says karyotype is dna prepared for display
Living one day at a time;
Enjoying one moment at a time;
Accepting hardships as the pathway to peace;
~Niebuhr
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Postby MrMistery » Fri May 20, 2005 6:46 pm

I didn't check our dictonary. I am sure it is how i stated it, though. But, if the dictonary says it is like that....
"As a biologist, I firmly believe that when you're dead, you're dead. Except for what you live behind in history. That's the only afterlife" - J. Craig Venter
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