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lysosome

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lysosome

Postby nazita » Thu Dec 14, 2006 4:49 pm

hi all,
can any one help me with the answer of this question?
"Why don't lysosomes digest themselves??" :?:
thanx,
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Postby LilKim » Thu Dec 14, 2006 5:01 pm

try here.... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysosome

let me know if this answers your question.
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Postby nazita » Fri Dec 15, 2006 9:21 am

thanks lilkim!
i read your mentioned link,but there is some doubt for me!
what i actually found relavent to the question is :
At pH 4.8, the interior of the lysosomes is more acidic than the cytosol (pH 7). The lysosome single membrane stabilizes the low pH by pumping in protons (H+) from the cytosol, and also protects the cytosol, and therefore the rest of the cell, from the degradative enzymes within the lysosome. For this reason, should a lysosome's acid hydrolases leak into the cytosol, their potential to damage the cell will be reduced, because they will not be at their optimum pH.

The constant pH of 4.8 is maintained by proton pumps and Cl- ion channels

i wana to know is this reason cause protecting the lysosome's membrane from being digested by ensymes too?
thanx in advance
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Postby MrMistery » Fri Dec 15, 2006 5:43 pm

there are some special anti-degrative sugars on the inside of the membrane that protect the membrane and its proteins from self-digestion
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Postby LilKim » Fri Dec 15, 2006 9:08 pm

The lysosomal membrane is primarily composed of lipids (phospholipids) and lysosomal protiens. Where as the enzymes enclosed by this vesicle only act at certain amino acid sequences of protiens.

Based on these facts I would assume that membrane bound lysosomal proteins do not contain these 'target' amino acid sequences and therefore would not be degrade by lysosomal enzymes. And I guess that the glycosylation (anti-degrative sugars) would further protect the lysomes from self-destruction.
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Postby Vibrio » Sat Dec 16, 2006 6:19 am

I just have to say that I loved learning about lysosomes!! I think they're cool. In my AP bio class last year, we had to write a children's book using cell parts as characters. I made the lysosome look really cool :)
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Postby nazita » Sun Dec 17, 2006 7:20 pm

hi all
thanks for your replies!
these notes was very useful for me! but i have some problem yet
if the memberan of lysosome have the glycosylation so how can it digest other lysosomes?
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Postby Vibrio » Mon Dec 18, 2006 3:24 am

Well, I don't know how it can digest other lysosomes but I know that it can fuse with other organelles such as food vacules and digest what is in them.
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Re: lysosome

Postby hkornfeld » Thu Sep 17, 2009 10:19 pm

I'm guessing this topic is old and nobody is looking but just in case...
I'm trying to figure out how M. tuberculosis kills macrophages and have some evidence that lysomes are damaged, releasing hydrolases that attack macrophage membranes (nuclear, mitochonrdrial, plasmalemmal). This relates to the original question here - how is the lysosomal limiting membrane protected from the internal hydrolases. It's really hard to find good answers to this. There is the mysterious "glycocalix" proteins but almost no references on a Pubmed search of lysosome + glycocalix. The lysosomes do indeed contain enzymes with phospholipase activity capable of damaging membranes, but these might not have access to the membranes without protein interactions. It seems that bits of intraluminal membrane are degraded in lysosomes. This process might require a unique acidic phosophlipid called bis(monoglycero)phosphate and an interaction with a saposin. Might be that the limiting membrane is sequestered from these systems that enable enzymatic attack on the internal membranes.

If anybody has any ideas about possible targets within the lysosome for some putative bacterial factor that would result in membrane destabilization I'd love to hear from you!
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Re: lysosome

Postby mlomize » Wed May 04, 2011 3:52 am

Inside the lysosome membrane there is a thick "glycocalix" protective layer.

This "glycocalix" is made of special proteins called "Lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMP)" and sugars "polylactosamine."

Source: The lysosomal leaflet of the limiting membrane is covered with a thick glycocalix that protects the membrane from attack by the membrane-degrading enzymes present in the lysosol. This glycocalix is formed by lysosomal integral and peripheral membrane proteins, which are highly N-glycosylated with polylactosamine units and therefore highly resistant toward lysosomal digestion (Eskelinen et al. 2003).

Eskelinen E-L, Tanaka Y, Saftig P. 2003. At the acidic edge: emerging functions for lysosomal membrane proteins. Trends Cell Biol. 13:137–145

Kolter T, Sandhoff K. 2005. Principles of Lysosomal Membrane Digestion: Stimulation of Sphingolipid Degradation by Sphingolipid Activator Proteins and Anionic Lysosomal Lipids Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 21:81-103.
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Postby IceBox » Tue Aug 02, 2011 8:34 am

Lysosomes are organelles of the cell that are not degraded themselves, they just degrade things. They also don't digest endosomes. Early endosomes are recycled back to plasma membrane to be reused in transporting more substances to them via the endocytic pathway, and late endosomes just transport the material to lysosome.
Read more:
http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/20 ... .Cb.r.html
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Postby pisces » Fri Sep 02, 2011 11:09 am

because the enzymes of lysosomes in an inactive state.
they are converted into active form when the pH changes
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