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Why do mutations occur, and what are possible mutations?

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Why do mutations occur, and what are possible mutations?

Postby britainthemoped » Thu Feb 25, 2016 6:03 pm

I am working on a school project regarding genetics, and I chose to study mutations. I keep hearing that they occur during transcription and translation, but I can't find much on what mutations can occur. Please reply soon. :D :lol: :roll: :lol: :D


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Re: Why do mutations occur, and what are possible mutations?

Postby claudepa » Tue Mar 01, 2016 12:32 pm

my reply of last week has vanished. So to summarize mutations happen essentialy during DNA replication and by the action of deficient DNA repair systems. They therefore cannot happen during translation. Chemical modifications of bases either due to oxygen or to toxic compounds can cause errors in DNA replication and perturbate DNA repair systems.
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Postby britainthemoped » Tue Mar 01, 2016 5:15 pm

Thanks.
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Re: Why do mutations occur, and what are possible mutations?

Postby claudepa » Wed Mar 02, 2016 2:56 pm

In the reply that vanished I added that generally speaking mutations occur at random on the genome. Most of them have no serious consequences. But sometimes they occur statistically in sensitive genes and can trigger diseases such as cancers. Human genome has 23000 genes and most part of the genome is not genes. Only a few hundred genes are likely to trigger cancers when mutated. One of the bad situations is when the mutated gene is a DNA repair gene, of which mission is to prevent mutations. This mutation will amplify the number of mutations in the genome.
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Postby britainthemoped » Tue Mar 15, 2016 7:57 pm

thank you claudega. what would you like in return as a token of thanks. (Can't be money, impossible deeds, or a date (If you're a girl), as well as a twenty dollar gift.)
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Re: Why do mutations occur, and what are possible mutations?

Postby claudepa » Wed Mar 16, 2016 8:34 am

Hi. Thank you. My pleasure is only to communicate in the field of cell biology with anyone interested in this field. And this forum is a very good place to do it. In this line I also give online free teaching in cell biology. I believe there are people who would like to know more about how work the 30 000 billions human cells that are present (and cooperate) in a human being. All coming from the first cell, the zygote.
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Postby britainthemoped » Mon Mar 21, 2016 8:47 pm

Well, that's really something. Basically makes me seem kind of stupid, since I am just a student.


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Postby gagarin » Fri Mar 25, 2016 7:57 pm

Hey claudepa,

what do you think about the mutations or rearrangement, which occur not by chance but purposefully initiated by tumor cells?
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Re: Why do mutations occur, and what are possible mutations?

Postby claudepa » Wed Mar 30, 2016 2:33 pm

Hi Gagarin
I never heard of these on purpose mutations. But I do not know everything. What I know is that the genome of cancer cells becomes unstable and they can accumulate mutations because at some steps regulation mechanisms are damaged. For instance normally a DNA damage is repaired or if not the cell will die through apoptosis. But if, because of mutations, apoptosis does not happen,
DNA damages will accumulate in the cell.Unfortunately cancer is the price to pay because of the multicellularity of our nature. "the problem of cancer seems to be not why it occurs, but why it occurs so infrequently" (Alberts and al, Essential Cell Biology, third edition, page 720, line 19).
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