About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here.
All of you are very lucky because for the first time I'm going to post my finished papers
The avian flu is spreading. In 1997, the virus was first discovered in chicken in Hong Kong . Now, affected birds have been found in Asia, Europe, and North America. By August 5, 2005, there had been 112 people infected by H5N1 flu, 57 of which died . The mortality rate is greater than 50%. Most recently there have been reports of human to human transmission . An avian flu outbreak is comparable to the disastrous Spanish flu outbreak of 1918. If I were the President of the United States, I would be seriously concerned today.
There are three stages of a pandemic: inter-pandemic, pandemic alert, and pandemic. The inter-pandemic stage includes phases 1 and 2, which involve the infection of animals. The pandemic alert stage includes phases 3-5, which deal with localized transmission. The pandemic stage, phase 6, deals with increased and sustained transmission in the general population.
Identifying the stage that avian flu is at today is important because different actions should be taken during different stages of the pandemic. At the inter-pandemic stage, preventing the disease from transmitting from animal to animal is the best plan because animals are usually easy to isolate and control. If necessary, I would eradicate animals likely to infected in order to control the disease.
If the H5N1 virus can readily be transmitted from human to human, the avian flu has entered the pandemic alert stage. At this stage, controlling and killing animals are not sufficient to control the spread of the disease. Instead I would try to contain the infection. Infected people should be identified and prevented from traveling outside a local area. At the pandemic stage, the treatment for the disease becomes the focus.
No matter what stage the avian flu is in, I would implement the simplest plan: informing the public of the dangers of the avian flu and of simple preventive methods. The avian flu is dangerous because it can be transmitted through migratory birds that are difficult to control. With the global economy, containing people is difficult. Therefore, I would not delay preparing for the pandemic stage at any juncture in time.
Existing medicines may not be effective in fighting a new pandemic. For instance, M2 inhibitors, such as amantadine and rimantadine, are ineffective in fighting the H5N1 virus. I would fund research for new medicines. Some medicines, although effective, are too short in supply. If a pandemic were to occur, many countries would not have sufficient stocks of Tamiflu. New vaccines for H5N1 flu are years away. I would increase funding to produce more medicine and to find a vaccine.
Many of the inter-pandemic period policies can be used throughout the period we are in today, the pandemic alert period. Poultry and meat should be checked more carefully. Funding for a vaccine and better sanitation needs to be increased. Supplies of Tamiflu need to be mass produced and given to hospitals. And information about simple preventative methods, such as not touching dead birds, needs to reach the public. The main difference between the two periods is the inter-pandemic period’s focus should be on ways to prevent the jumping of the species barrier while the pandemic alert’s focus is more on the containment of humans who have the disease.
1. "Avian flu." Avian flu. 14 Dec. 2005. Biology Online. 15 Dec. 2005 <http://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/about3796.html>.
2. "How to Survive H5N1 Avian or Bird Flu." Follow these steps to reduce your vulnerability. 30 Sept 2005. The Travel Insider. 15 Dec. 2005 <http://www.thetravelinsider.info/2005/survivebirdflu.htm>.
3. "Avian Influenza Infection in Humans." Avian Influenza (Bird Flu). 15 Nov. 2005. Center for Disease and Control . 15 Dec. 2005 <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm>.
Have fun reading.
Last edited by Inuyasha on Thu Dec 22, 2005 12:20 am, edited 1 time in total.
Interesting that you put us among your inspiration sources since you are the one who gave the most info on the subject. But we don't mind the advertising. Maybe your teacher will join
"As a biologist, I firmly believe that when you're dead, you're dead. Except for what you live behind in history. That's the only afterlife" - J. Craig Venter
Well then i hope he joins. He would be a nice friend for Patrick and Victor
Gossiping about me? Yup, I guess we can be a nice friends since I'm a virus geek...
Oh, another case with H5N1 medication. I watched it in the news.
One case in US airport is that the checking of the H5N1 medication named Oseltamivie Phosphate. the airport men discovered that the medication is the fake one. I almost can't believe it when I see "Roche" (company who produce this kind of drug at the packing) together with chinnese alphabets..it's so ironic when a couple times before, China publicies to the world that it has it's own "Tamiflu"...
Q: Why are chemists great for solving problems?
A: They have all the solutions.
I've heard that since the SARS epidemic they've done a number of studies on germ transmission of illness. Apparently 80 per cent of germ transmission is hand to eye? Also studies done in the US proved that germs live on surfaces for 2 to 3 weeks or longer, not just the 2 or 3 days they used to think. I've heard this on the news but can't find the actual material on the internet-can anyone help me? it might be very important in a pandemic.
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