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basic misunderstandings

Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects.

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basic misunderstandings

Postby joe1401 » Sun Dec 04, 2005 11:48 pm

:( Anyone can soon tell that I know little about genetics, biology, or for that matter, science in general; but I have an interest in all of that. Presently I'm reading "Genome" by Matt Ridley, and although I haven't finished the book, I'm curious (or lost) about something. All of the discussion about "genes" seems to imply that one is analyzing sections of "a" chromosome ... but there are two sets of them, one paternal, the other maternal (at least I hope I have that right). When reference is made to a "gene", why is there no distinction between the two sets? For instance, when the author informs the reader that "such and such" gene is the cause of a problem because there are more, let's say, ACG's than normal; no mention is made of which chromosome has the excess. Does this mean that it doesn't matter which one, or does it mean that between both there is an excess?
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Postby baikuza » Mon Dec 05, 2005 1:13 pm

first of all.
it is right if we say more than one cromosomes in one cell/organism.
two set of them. they are homolog chromosomes with the paired genes within-allela.(two, because the chromosomes are duplicate it self. this makes chromatines)

ACG (adenin, Cytosin,Guanin) it just the example, only. it is a big matter if this structure occur wrong place.

for example, if we wanna to make protein DNA will make mRNA so that the procesess runs then with the support of ribosomes, some enzyme, and Adenin, Cytosin, Guanin, Urasil, Timin, Deoxyribo ,and phosphat cell can make kind of macromolucules(e.g. protein, of course at this example)
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basic misunderstanding

Postby joe1401 » Wed Dec 14, 2005 5:00 pm

Thanks for the reply .... but I'm afraid it is too technical for me. I have no idea of what you just said :(
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Postby MrMistery » Wed Dec 14, 2005 7:06 pm

Well, if a gene causes a specific desease, no matter the cause it must mean it expresses. But not all your genes express you know, almost half of your genes just sit there. You need to read what your book says about alleles: in a simple mendelian case, only the dominant allele will express, the other one just "sits there". Of course, things aren't that simple(they rarely are). But in this simple basic case you don't need to give the info because not both alleles will express, only the dominant one. Therefore "the problem" is located on the dominant allele.

PS: Try learning basic knowledge of biology(the boring stuff, with all the names of stuff etc) before you enter complex things like molecular genetics, if you want to understand things...
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basic misunderstandings

Postby joe1401 » Thu Dec 15, 2005 12:12 am

Cheese,

Thanks for the reply ... helps a bit! Now all I have to do is get right with "allele". So far it doesn't make sense ... but I'm sure it will eventually.

And thanks for the advice ... but if I wait until I know all that stuff to ask questions (and I'm working on it slow but sure) .... I'll already know the answers.

PS: Why call Romania an "unimportant country"? You are there are you not? You are important, therefore Romania is important!
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Postby canalon » Thu Dec 15, 2005 3:11 am

Have you tried our tutorials and our dictionnary?
OK I just read the definition of allele in the dictionnary and I feel that I would have a hard time understanding it if I didn't already knew it.

To be simple a gene is a part of a chromosome that contains the information to build a given protein. In most of the cases (and you can forget the others for a start) it is located at the same place on the same chromosome for everybody. But as a book that would have been copied by hand there are some differences between each copy. Sometimes very few, sometimes more, most of the times it doesn't change anything to the story, sometimes it makes it impossible to understand. But each different copy of the gene/book is called an allele of the gene.

I hope I cleared the things for you
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Postby Jumpshooter » Thu Dec 15, 2005 4:22 pm

Hi Joe,
You have inherited a set of alleles from your mom and a set from your dad. For some reason certain alleles are "dominant" over others and yet for some reason certain alleles are equal in strength to others (known as "Co-Dominance"). Here's a simple example to help elucidate this for you:
Consider your Hair Color: if your mom's hair was blonde and your dad's hair was black, there's a 75% chance that your hair is black and a 25% chance that your hair will be brown (mixture of black and white pigments).
Behold God's handiwork--it is in the biological universe and in your Mind. Praise Him!
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basic misunderstandings

Postby joe1401 » Fri Dec 16, 2005 7:35 pm

Jumpshooter,

Thanks for the reply!

I think I understand the "dominant" thing, but the term "allele" is still a bit confusing. In your explanation, "genes" could be substituted for "alleles" and still make sense ... not that I'm trying to be critical, just that it doesn't clarify the term for me .... but then I'll admit to having the "dense" gene.

I surmise from your signature statement that you believe in the "Intelligent Designer". One of my interests in genetics, at this late stage, is to try and understand what it is that prevents others from seeing him also. And I too lived in the Kansas City area for a few years ... in Merriam, on the Kansas side to be exact ... and appreciate your spelling of the state in which I was born, Missouri (St. Louis ... go Cardinals!). We have a similar problem with my adopted state, Oregon. Many want to pronounce it ory-gŏn, rather than ore-uh-gun.


Anyway, back to genetics ... do you know of an explanation for why one gene in a pair of chromosomes is "expressed" over the other? I am working my way through the tutorials but haven't gotten to that yet .... at least not that I have recognized. If you can point to the tutorial, I would appreciate it .... if not that's fine.
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basic misunderstandings

Postby joe1401 » Fri Dec 16, 2005 7:37 pm

Patrick,

Yes, I have looked into the dictionary and tutorials .... awesome! So much information! My thanks to the whoevers that put all that stuff together.

"Allele", is still a bit confusing to me. I'm getting the impression that it's a term for any gene that provides variety. However, can't any gene exhibit this? For example, can't any paternal gene potentially be somewhat different than the maternal gene ... and depending on which is expressed produce a result different than if they were both the same?
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Postby MrMistery » Fri Dec 16, 2005 7:55 pm

Well that is what allele means: you get one from your mother and one from your father. The dominant ones(s) express, giving the trait...
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Postby bobandfriends » Sat Dec 17, 2005 4:38 pm

allele, as said by my bio teacher, is another word for triat. i hope the synonym helps
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basic misunderstandings

Postby joe1401 » Sat Dec 17, 2005 7:46 pm

Bob....

Thanks! Every little bit helps! Funny how a word can get so complicated.
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