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Microbiology Investigation improvements?

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Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby Squirrell » Fri Feb 17, 2012 9:16 pm

I am unsure whether this should be included in the Microbiology section, so sorry if it is incorrectly placed.

So, next week I have an interview for microbiology at the University of Surrey (Guildford) and my grades don't quite meet their standard offer (not because I am incapable of the grades, but because my time and space was limited by household problems last year). Clearly I did something right in my UCAS application, because they have invited me for an interview.

To impress my interviewer just a little bit more than he would be if I presented a piece of work or nothing at all, I performed a scientific investigation which I intend to use to showcase my potential as a microbiology student. I am happy with what I have so far, but I have never written up an investigation before and I am unsure whether I have covered everything I need to.

It would be greatly appreciated if somebody would look over my investigation report and suggest anything that might be changed or improved upon. Please reply to this thread, PM me or e-mail me at jimi.squirrell@live.co.uk

Regards,
J Squirrell


--------------------------------------------


Investigation: The Effectiveness of Natural Antibiotics against E. coli.

Introduction/Aim

With the recent hype about virulent Escherichia coli being found in food and on surfaces, causing a range of medical problems of varying severity, it may be valuable to know the effectiveness of different antibiotics used to treat infections, and foods which may aid to reduce the chances of becoming sick at all. E. coli is responsible for many cases of neonatal meningitis, and ‘natural’ preventative measures are often preferred by pregnant women. This will be the focus of the investigation.

Neonatal meningitis is transmitted to the foetus postpartum, and although it is not exceedingly prevalent, and is treatable, it is still considered a serious disease and prevention is preferred over treatment. The strain of E. coli which is responsible for the infection is found naturally in humans and is usually non-virulent. Most neonatal E. coli meningitis infections occur during parturition, so whether the mother's diet will influence the susceptibility of the neonate is uncertain. Infection may also occur in the hospital or at home, and is more likely to occur in an immunocompromised child. Premature and low-birth-weight babies are most susceptible. It should also be noted that in the UK and Ireland, under 20% of neonatal meningitis are the result of E. coli. The majority of cases are the result of group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis. In less developed countries, however, E. coli is the dominant cause of the disease. If the natural antibiotics used in this investigation are effective, they may be used as cheap prevention and treatment in countries where there is poor national healthcare.

It has been suggested by the Meningitis Research Foundation that in the near future, mothers may be vaccinated against E. coli to increase the child's resistance to E. coli. This does not mean that the diet will have any effect on the unborn child's immune system, as vaccinations are used to diversify the antibodies found in the colostrum.

The aim of the investigation, whether diet influences the neonate's immune system or not, is to compare the effectiveness of the commercially available antibiotics chloramphenicol and penicillin G against garlic and grapefruit seeds.


Hypothesis

It is very unlikely that chloramphenicol will not have an effect. Where the chloramphenicol is placed on the plate, the E. coli will not grow, or there will be greatly reduced growth. Penicillin G, however, is unlikely to have any effect at all, because it is a β-lactam antibiotic; used for bacteria that cannot synthesise β-lactamase, where E. coli can. Many Gram-negative bacteria are naturally resistant to β-lactam antibiotics; this further supports the prediction that penicillin G will have no effect on the E. coli.
Garlic is a well-known antimicrobial food, and has been used to treat a wide variety of infections. It was used extensively to fight gangrene during World Wars I and II, chest infections and disorders, digestive infections and even fungal disorders like thrush. It has also been used in mouthwash to combat microbes responsible for gum disease and other oral infections, but many of the product's users reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis. Garlic will likely have some effect on the E. coli culture, but whether or not it will compare well to chloramphenicol remains to be seen.

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is recommended by some nutritionists to treat some bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Many scientific investigations have found that there is little evidence to support the claims that GSE has antimicrobial properties, but there have also been reports of success from patients that chose this method of treatment. The results of GSE use in this experiment are unpredictable with the accessible resources.

The hypothesis is that E. coli will be most resistant to penicillin G, followed by grapefruit seeds, garlic and then chloramphenicol, which will be a very successful antibiotic against the culture.


Method

Throughout the method, strict aseptic technique will be used, and all equipment and media will be sterile until used. The test will be repeated 3 times to ensure consistent results.

1. Prepare 3 petri dishes of nutrient agar. Leave to set.

2. Prepare an E. coli broth.

3. Once the agar has set, sterilise the work surface, wash hands and create an aseptic environment to prevent contamination. All equipment will be prepared before the experiment begins:
Nutrient agar plates (3)
E. coli broth
Spreader
MastRings (M11) (3 required, but have more ready in case they are dropped and contaminated)
Garlic
Grapefruit seeds
Scissors
Forceps
Pipette (10-100µl) with sterile tips
Distilled water
Mortar & pestle
Scalpel
CD Writer Pen, for writing on the plate.
Bunsen burner and heat mat

4. Using the pipette, put 50µl of E. coli broth onto each agar plate.

5. Sterilise the spreader with the Bunsen burner (3 waves through the tip of the blue flame).

6. Use the spreader to evenly spread the broth across the entire surface of the plate. Sterilise the spreader between plates.

7. Place under the Bunsen burner to dry.

8. Sterilise the scalpel with the Bunsen burner (3 waves through the tip of the blue flame).

9. Cut the garlic and the grapefruit seeds into small pieces. Remove the shells from the seeds.

10. Put the seeds and the garlic into separate mortars, and add 200µl of distilled water into each.

11. Grind the garlic and the seeds into the water, to extract as much liquid as possible. Leave for 10 minutes to diffuse.

12. Once dry, divide the plates into 4 sections, by drawing on the bottom of the plate. Label each section with one of the antibiotics (chloramphenicol (C), penicillin G (PG), grapefruit seed solution (GSE), garlic solution (G)).

13. M11 MastRings have 8 lobes on the ring. Use the forceps to hold the ring, and cut off the chloramphenicol and penicillin G lobes into their respective sections.

14. Once 10 minutes have passed, pipette 50µl of garlic solution into the garlic section of each plate. Do the same with the grapefruit seed solution into the GSE section of the plate.

15. Place under the Bunsen burner to dry.

16. Label plates clearly with initials, E. coli and date of inoculation.

17. Incubate the plates at a warm temperature (15-25ºC).

18. Tidy away all equipment, sterilise all biohazards.


Results

% effectiveness determined by the amount of E. coli growth around the antibiotic. 100% effectiveness = no growth surrounding the antibiotic. 0% = no effect on the culture.
Antibiotic
Effectiveness (Include all plates)
Chloramphenicol
90%, 95%, 90%
Penicillin G
0%, 0%, 0%
Garlic solution
60%, 50%, 30%
GSE solution
5%, 2% 3%

<Graph included here. Above is contained within table>

Key:
Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3










Conclusion

The results indicate that garlic definitely has some antibiotic properties, and may help to prevent E. coli neonatal meningitis. Grapefruit seeds are slightly effective, but so little that practical use seems improbable. As expected, chloramphenicol was very effective and penicillin G was not. These were used not because they have been tested before, but to show what to expect from a good antibiotic and from a poor one.
There was slight variation in the results, particularly from the garlic solution. This may be the result of poorly spread cultures, random variation or natural selection.
It cannot be determined from the results of this experiment whether garlic is suitable for use as treatment (be it preventative or curative) for neonatal meningitis, however it does suggest that garlic may be used to treat an E. coli infection.


Evaluation

The investigation was limited in scope and a number of problems arose when applying the antibiotics to the plate, the most significant being the dilution of the garlic and grapefruit seeds. Initially, the plan was to put 200µl of distilled water into the mortars with the garlic and grapefruit seeds respectively, however once the samples had been ground into the water, the water did not pool and it became impossible to pipette any of the solution. More water was added, but due to the lack of grapefruit seeds available, the dilution of the GSE solution could not be compensated for by adding more seeds. With a diluted solution, it is likely the results were not accurate and they may have had more antibiotic properties if applied in a more concentrated form. In a further investigation I would spend time perfecting the technique of extraction of the desired reagent and determining its standardisation.

The experiment was limited by time and if further experimentation was to be carried out it would need to be given time to perfect the technique and collect enough results to confirm any significant results.

The results of the experiment though limited were fairly consistent and suggested that both garlic and GSE both have antibiotic properties, however the GSE results appear less significant and may not be of any practical use.

---------------------------------

NOTE: The above report is structured differently in the original copy, but I could not attach a .doc file. All instances of E./Escherichia coli have been italicised.
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Postby JorgeLobo » Sat Feb 18, 2012 2:58 am

I'd drop the natural from title.
Drop "hype" - a scientist should respond to data - not hype.
Identfiy the Escherichia coli strain of concern - your intro should include appropriate citations and include something relevant to the garlic and grapefruit seeds you propose tyo evaluate
You offered context of clinical benefit and used therapeutic antibitoics for comparison but your cut garlic and grapefuit seeds are irrelevant to treatment, esp. of meningitis.
"GSE" or grapfruit seed extract is a notorious commercial material offered fraudulantly as a naturally derived antimicrobial. Please be prepared to defend against that record.
Why 15-20C? If c.incial application is intedned - should this not be body temp?
The last section should be cnclusion - not "Evaluation" and you should bring some sense of reality by acknowledging the absnece of safety data for garlic and grapefruit seed extracts in clincial application - and again, you need referecnes.

but your prptcol has no bearing
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Re:

Postby Squirrell » Sat Feb 18, 2012 12:10 pm

JorgeLobo wrote:I'd drop the natural from title.
Drop "hype" - a scientist should respond to data - not hype.
Identfiy the Escherichia coli strain of concern - your intro should include appropriate citations and include something relevant to the garlic and grapefruit seeds you propose tyo evaluate
You offered context of clinical benefit and used therapeutic antibitoics for comparison but your cut garlic and grapefuit seeds are irrelevant to treatment, esp. of meningitis.
"GSE" or grapfruit seed extract is a notorious commercial material offered fraudulantly as a naturally derived antimicrobial. Please be prepared to defend against that record.
Why 15-20C? If c.incial application is intedned - should this not be body temp?
The last section should be cnclusion - not "Evaluation" and you should bring some sense of reality by acknowledging the absnece of safety data for garlic and grapefruit seed extracts in clincial application - and again, you need referecnes.

but your prptcol has no bearing


A little harsh, but helpful nonetheless. Thanks.
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Re: Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby JorgeLobo » Sat Feb 18, 2012 12:31 pm

Harsh? This is nice "hustle" at the undergraduate level but shallow. Please understand the nature of science is challenge so, if you proceed, you'll need to get a little thicker skin. Do consider how you would defend your work if the committee asked the obvious:
- garlic and its extracts have been repeatedly shown to demonstrate antimicrobial activity - what's new about this and how does it compare to published results?
- what therapuetic use of garlic are you actually proposing ?
Your responses may well be more infulential to their decision than the work itself.
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Re: Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby Squirrell » Sat Feb 18, 2012 3:10 pm

JorgeLobo wrote:Harsh? This is nice "hustle" at the undergraduate level but shallow. Please understand the nature of science is challenge so, if you proceed, you'll need to get a little thicker skin. Do consider how you would defend your work if the committee asked the obvious:
- garlic and its extracts have been repeatedly shown to demonstrate antimicrobial activity - what's new about this and how does it compare to published results?
- what therapuetic use of garlic are you actually proposing ?
Your responses may well be more infulential to their decision than the work itself.


I wasn't suggesting I'm too delicate to take the criticism, but I have never been inside a university before let alone created work at university level. I'm a quick learner but I wrote this without knowing at all what was expected of me. I was asking for suggestions, not to tell me that the whole thing was worthless. I did take your points and use them though, so thank you.

I understand and appreciate that this investigation does not contain anything new, but that was not the aim of it (regardless of what I put in the report). I did this to show that I am capable of scientific investigation.

Please understand that this is not being presented to a committee as a scientific investigation, it is being presented to an interviewer to showcase some of my potential as a student at their university.
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Re: Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby canalon » Mon Feb 20, 2012 3:56 am

I would second Jorgelobo and add the following:
- Show references: you say that many things are known, show where you found them. Primary references would be better. It will demonstrate that you have an idea what a literature search is. Real good.
- For an interview, I am not sure that such a detailed methods section present any interest. Be ready to explain, be concise in your report. But say how much water you use to make your extract. And how you calculate your effectiveness.
- There is a major problem in your study, you claim to study the effect of garlic in diet, but then not only test it in vitro, but without demonstrating that whatever is beneficial in those extract would be found where it matters. How would you defend that?
Patrick

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Postby Squirrell » Mon Feb 20, 2012 8:19 am

Sorry Canalon, but could you explain what you mean by "found where it matters"? I have included references and I am prepared to give concise explanations in the interview.

This investigation was suggested to me by the microbiology lab worker, only he told me to fabricate a reason to do it so I would have something other that 'to get into university' as the 'aim' section. This does mean I'm unsure about many things regarding microbiology and the protocol of scientific investigation. I'm not scientifically incompetent, but investigations are very new to me.

If I were to represent garlic as a dietary supplementation, which method of inoculation would be best? I haven't done this, but surely it would be wise to acknowledge this mistake in the conclusion...

Please get back to me before Wednesday!

P.S. If you mean finding that garlic has antimicrobial activity before the investigation, why would that be necessary? Isn't the test itself concluding that?
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Re: Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby Squirrell » Mon Feb 20, 2012 8:30 am

Investigation: The Effectiveness of 'Natural Antibiotics' against E. coli.

Introduction/Aim

With the recent data about virulent Escherichia coli being found in food and on surfaces, causing a range of medical problems of varying severity, it may be valuable to know the effectiveness of different antibiotics used to treat infections, and foods which may aid to reduce the chances of becoming sick at all. E. coli is responsible for many cases of neonatal meningitis, and ‘natural’ preventative measures are often preferred by pregnant women (although it should be noted that this has become a large fraudulent industry, dispatching weak medicines with little research to measure their effectiveness or safety for use). Weaker antibiotics may also be considered as treatment for infected newborns and premature births.

Garlic and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) have both been examined before (Die Pharmazie [1999, 54(6):452-6])(Microbes and Infection Volume 1, Issue 2, February 1999, Pages 125–129) and garlic has shown antimicrobial activity. All antimicrobial activity observed in the GSE experiments were credited to synthetic preservative agents within the seeds. The homeopathy industry insists that GSE has antimicrobial properties and continues to market it regardless of a collection of scientific investigations contradicting this hypothesis.

Neonatal meningitis infections – mainly caused by the Esch. Coli K1 strain (The Lancet, Volume 304, Issue 7875, Pages 246 - 250, 3 August 1974) – occurs in foetuses postpartum, and although it is treatable, it is still considered a serious disease and prevention is preferred over treatment. E. coli K1 which is responsible for the infection is found naturally in humans and is usually non-virulent. Most neonatal E. coli meningitis infections occur during or after parturition, so whether the mother's diet will influence the susceptibility of the neonate is uncertain. Infection may also occur in the hospital or at home, and is more likely to occur in an immunocompromised child. Premature and low-birth-weight babies are most susceptible (Infect. Immun. April 1977 vol. 16 no. 1 75-80). It should also be noted that in the UK and Ireland, under 20% of neonatal meningitis are the result of E. coli. The majority of cases are the result of group B streptococcal (GBS) meningitis. In less developed countries, however, E. coli is the dominant cause of the disease (http://www.meningitis.org/disease-info/ ... uses/ecoli). If the natural antibiotics used in this investigation are effective, they may be used as cheap treatment in countries where there is poor national healthcare.

It has been suggested by the Meningitis Research Foundation that in the near future, mothers may be vaccinated against E. coli to increase the child's resistance to E. coli. This does not mean that the diet will have any effect on the unborn child's immune system, as vaccinations are used to diversify the antibodies found in the colostrum.

Infants infected with neonatal meningitis more frequently have neurological disorders and mental development later in life (CLIN PEDIATR September 2001 vol. 40 no. 9 473-480).

The aim of the investigation is to compare the effectiveness of the commercially available antibiotics chloramphenicol and penicillin G against garlic and grapefruit seed solutions for use as diet supplements for prevention and complementary or alternative treatment in infants infected with E. coli K1 meningitis.

The use of chloramphenicol and penicillin G is to have successful and unsuccessful antibiotics to compare with the proposed alternative antibiotics.


Hypothesis

It is very unlikely that chloramphenicol will not have an effect. Where the chloramphenicol is placed on the plate, the E. coli will not grow, or there will be greatly reduced growth. Penicillin G, however, is unlikely to have any effect at all, because it is a β-lactam antibiotic; used for bacteria that cannot synthesise β-lactamase, where E. coli can. Many Gram-negative bacteria are naturally resistant to β-lactam antibiotics; this further supports the prediction that penicillin G will have no effect on the E. coli.
Garlic is a well-known antimicrobial food, and has been used to treat a wide variety of infections. It was used extensively to fight gangrene during World Wars I and II, chest infections and disorders, digestive infections and even fungal disorders like thrush. It has also been used in mouthwash to combat microbes responsible for gum disease and other oral infections, but many of the product's users reported an unpleasant taste and halitosis. Garlic will likely have some effect on the E. coli culture, but whether or not it will compare well to chloramphenicol remains to be seen.

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is recommended by some nutritionists to treat some bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Many scientific investigations have found that there is little evidence to support the claims that GSE has antimicrobial properties, but there have also been reports of success from patients that have chosen this method of treatment. This may be because of the support these patients have for the homeopathy industry. Referencing previous investigations, it is unlikely GSE will have much effect.

The hypothesis is that E. coli will be most resistant to penicillin G, followed by grapefruit seeds, garlic and then chloramphenicol, which will be a very successful antibiotic against the culture.


Method

Throughout the method, strict aseptic technique will be used, and all equipment and media will be sterile until used. The test will be repeated 3 times to ensure consistent results.

1. Prepare 3 petri dishes of nutrient agar. Leave to set.
2. Prepare an E. coli broth.
3. Once the agar has set, sterilise the work surface, wash hands and create an aseptic environment to prevent contamination. All equipment will be prepared before the experiment begins:
Nutrient agar plates (3)
E. coli broth
Spreader
MastRings (M11) (3 required, but have more ready in case they are dropped and contaminated)
Garlic
Grapefruit seeds
Scissors
Forceps
Pipette (10-100µl) with sterile tips
Distilled water
Mortar & pestle
Scalpel
CD Writer Pen, for writing on the plate.
Bunsen burner and heat mat
4. Using the pipette, put 50µl of E. coli broth onto each agar plate.
5. Sterilise the spreader with the Bunsen burner (3 waves through the tip of the blue flame).
6. Use the spreader to evenly spread the broth across the entire surface of the plate. Sterilise the spreader between plates.
7. Place under the Bunsen burner to dry.
8. Sterilise the scalpel with the Bunsen burner (3 waves through the tip of the blue flame).
9. Cut the garlic and the grapefruit seeds into small pieces. Remove the shells from the seeds.
10. Put the seeds and the garlic into separate mortars, and add 200µl of distilled water into each.
11. Grind the garlic and the seeds into the water, to extract as much liquid as possible. Leave for 10 minutes to diffuse.
12. Once dry, divide the plates into 4 sections, by drawing on the bottom of the plate. Label each section with one of the antibiotics (chloramphenicol (C), penicillin G (PG), grapefruit seed solution (GSE), garlic solution (G)).
13. M11 MastRings have 8 lobes on the ring. Use the forceps to hold the ring, and cut off the chloramphenicol and penicillin G lobes into their respective sections.
14. Once 10 minutes have passed, pipette 50µl of garlic solution into the garlic section of each plate. Do the same with the grapefruit seed solution into the GSE section of the plate.
15. Place under the Bunsen burner to dry.
16. Label plates clearly with initials, E. coli and date of inoculation.
17. Incubate the plates at 37+/-1ºC.
18. Tidy away all equipment, sterilise all biohazards.


Results

% effectiveness determined by the amount of E. coli growth around the antibiotic. 100% effectiveness = no growth surrounding the antibiotic. 0% = no effect on the culture.
Antibiotic
Effectiveness (Include all plates)
Chloramphenicol
90%, 95%, 90%
Penicillin G
0%, 0%, 0%
Garlic solution
60%, 50%, 30%
GSE solution
5%, 2% 3%

<graph here. above contained in table>

Key:
Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3

Conclusion

The results indicate that garlic definitely has some antibiotic properties, and may help to prevent E. coli neonatal meningitis. Grapefruit seeds are effective, but so little that practical use seems improbable. As expected, chloramphenicol was very effective and penicillin G was not.

There was slight variation in the results, particularly from the garlic solution. This may be the result of poorly spread cultures, random variation or natural selection.

The investigation was limited in scope and a number of problems arose when applying the antibiotics to the plate, the most significant being the dilution of the garlic and grapefruit seeds. Initially, the plan was to put 200µl of distilled water into the mortars with the garlic and grapefruit seeds respectively, however once the samples had been ground into the water, the water did not pool and it became impossible to pipette any of the solution. More water was added, but due to the lack of grapefruit seeds available, the dilution of the GSE solution could not be compensated for by adding more seeds. With a diluted solution, it is likely the results were not accurate and they may have had more antibiotic properties if applied in a more concentrated form. In a further investigation I would spend time perfecting the technique of extraction of the desired reagent and determining its standardisation.

The experiment was limited by time and if further experimentation was to be carried out it would need to be given time to perfect the technique and collect enough results to confirm any significant results.

Even if GSE is proven successful when used as treatment for E. coli, there are concerns that concentrated solutions of GSE (1:1 – 1:128) are toxic (The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. June 2002, 8(3): 333-340.). Tests for safety in application and effectiveness at greater dilutions should be effected before considering GSE as a treatment.

The results of the experiment though limited were fairly consistent and suggested that both garlic and GSE both have antibiotic properties, however the GSE results appear less significant and may not be of any practical use.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Is this any improvement on the original?
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Re: Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby JorgeLobo » Tue Feb 21, 2012 1:37 pm

It is an improvement and there are still additions that will help.
1) You have taken a run at adding references as canalon said. I'd carry it out further for all citations of external work such as "recent data" in the 1st line. This should be supported within that sentence by a citation that would allow the reader to see these data and use more conventional format (X and X, 1998). Other examples hanging wothout ref - garlic is an "antimicrobial food" (whatever that means). You should look for the citations and format on pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) or google scholar.
2) Your hypothesis should be simple and refer specifially and exclusively to your experiment. You inappropriately continue your intro in this section and fail to clearly state your objective.
3) Add a justifcation of why you chose gralic and GSE. Some of this is in hypothesis - it belongs in the intro and neds references.
4) If they know anything of the so-called grapefruit seed extract - they'll know of published data suggesting it is a fraud. Suggest you become familair with these reports.
5) The purpose of the study was apparently generate data supporting the use of these extracts in clinical application but you've said nothing re. how these "natural" antibitoics (that is repetitive) would be further qualified and used. You must (in order to appear competitive) consider these points. I'd be pretty honest here and not try to BS the interviewer. Internal use is a highly unlikely eventuality and topical use is inconsistent with the context offered in intro. In conversation - I'd repeat what you told us - you offer this as an example of how you would approach a problem.
Good luck on this and don't invest too much ego. You objective is admission not praise for this production.
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Postby canalon » Tue Feb 21, 2012 9:54 pm

As JorgeLobo, said it looks better. And he gave you lot of hints on how to improve even further, so I will leave at that.

To answer your question about the where it matters. You presnt Garlic and GSE as food additives and study their antibiotic properties great, but is it relevant? Neonatal meningitis is acquired during vaginal birth if there are bacteria that contaminated the birth canal. Is the garlic or GSE prevent that? How? It will certainly not kill all bacteria from the digestive tract, I am dubious that they would be somehow excreted back by the mucous membrane of the vagina, and I doubt very much that anyone would clean themselves or their newborn with either extract. So how relevant is your study? Do not answer me but your interviewer...
Patrick

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Postby Squirrell » Wed Feb 22, 2012 6:59 pm

Thanks guys, the interview went well. He appreciated the effort I put into this report, and he's going to recommend giving me an offer to the admissions team.

Unfortunately, he says, the admissions team has recently been changed to a 'central admissions', which deals with the whole university and grades have become more important than the interview (DDD 'minimum' entry, I can only get DMM - see original post). He said he'll try his best as he'd like to see me on the course (he seemed sincere when he said this, and appeared impressed with my interest in microbiology and ambitions), but it's unlikely it'll make a difference, unfortunately.

Thanks for the help JorgeLobo and canalon. I'll be attending the University of Westminster instead, I suppose (I already have an offer there). :)
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Re: Microbiology Investigation improvements?

Postby JorgeLobo » Thu Feb 23, 2012 11:12 am

So you have the opportuntityat at least one of the two schools - great!!
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