About microscopic forms of life, including Bacteria, Archea, protozoans, algae and fungi. Topics relating to viruses, viroids and prions also belong here.
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Thanks for the help on Tb and malaria that i'm recieving if u have any good information please send ti to me. But here's a great paper on the West Nile Virus. Please if ur going to "copy" it, cite it.
Ty Guo ID 12279287
September 13, 2005 Biology of Infectious Diseases
12 Year Old Boy Unable to Play Football Due to the West Nile Virus
Having recently emerged, the West Nile virus has triggered much pain. Flavivirus West Nile virus is a single stranded RNA about 10,000-11,000 bases. As an RNA virus, it has an elevated rate of mutation. This mutation rate results to the lack of DNA polymerases which finds and edits DNA. A higher mutation rate means more variations. Three proteins and a host-derived lipid bilayer structurally construct the West Nile virus. The virus has an icosahedral structure with a diameter 500 angstroms wide. The West Nile virus resembles the dengue fever virus in structure, but their surface proteins differ. The virus is between 40-60 nanometres long. This is large enough to appear in an electron microscope.
The virus invades the center nervous system. The virus causes inflammation of the brain, encephalitis. It also causes inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord, meningitis. Encephalitis and meningitis often cause brain damage. Mild symptoms may occur: nausea, anorexia, malaise, myalgia, headache, rash, eye pain, and vomiting. Severer symptoms include muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis, photophobia, seizures, mental status changes, respiratory symptoms, and neck, arm, or leg rashes. Confusion, stupor, and coma may result depending on the severity. The cranial nerves and face nerves may be affected. These injured nerves can result in facial weakness, double vision, and decreased taste.
The virus infects horses, birds, dogs, and other mammals, with wild birds as the best and most common hosts for sheltering and allowing the virus to replicate. Sucking blood from an infected animal, Aedes, Culex, or Anopheles mosquitoes are infected and act as vectors. These mosquitoes may go on to infect humans, however only female mosquitoes drink blood from humans. The more mosquitoes in a given environment the more likely people in that environment will be infected. Warm climate increases the number of mosquitoes. Summer is the ideal season for breeding mosquitoes. Greater exposure to the environment also adds to the chance of infection. Swamps, tropical places, and any warm place with still water are also ideal places for mosquitoes. The more mosquitoes the more likely the virus is present.
Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and North America all harbor the West Nile virus. In 1999, New York City, the West Nile virus was recorded. Since the New York incident, the infection has spread throughout North American. In the United States, in 2002, 3,389 cases of West Nile virus were reported. Of theses cases 55% came from the Midwest. A recent case has been recorded in New York. However, third world countries suffer more from this disease. Generally speaking, the virus does not greatly affect most modern countries such as the United States. A large number of cases in modern countries have been traced from visitation of a third world country to a modern country. It is also believed that organ transplantation, breastfeeding, and blood transfusions may also spread this disease. Information on this however is not certain.
Treatment programs for the West Nile virus are usually individualized. Infected patients have numerous different effects from the virus. A physiatrist, nurse, physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist, social worker, and neuropsychologist may all be needed for recovery and even than full recovery is unlikely. A physical therapist aids in the recovery of muscle tone, strength, sensation, and endurance. Common treatments of the infected include mobility training, transfer training, and gait training. A wide range of motion and proper positioning training is usually required. Balance training exercises are necessary too. The main goal is to develop independence. Needed occupational therapy focuses on everyday activities such as eating and drinking. The use of the arms and hands should be maximized. These functional activities will help the patient relearn basic functions. Cognitive issues that affect daily functions must be addressed. Patients may have dysarthria, dysphagia, or aphasia. Due to this, a structured speech therapy program may be needed to improve swallowing, recover speech, and prevent further complications like aspiration pneumonia.
Prevention of the West Nile virus focuses not on preventing the disease but avoiding mosquito bites. Insect repellents with the chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide should be applied whenever outside. Long-sleeves, long pants, and socks offer a double skin against bites. Thin clothing however provides limited protection, since mosquitoes can bite through them. Spraying clothes with permethrin or DEET provides another layer of protection. Mosquito bites occur from dusk to dawn. Repellents should be applied and protective clothing is needed in the evening and early morning. Homes should be protected from mosquitoes as well. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in still water, containers, and standing water. These places should be drained. Screens on doors and windows offer another physical barrier. Dead birds often indicate the presence of the West Nile virus. If a large amount of dead birds appear, this should be reported to the local health authorities.
A 12-year-old living in Illinois was infected by the West Nile virus. The boy was diagnosed with viral meningitis. He was reported to have meningitis by a physician Sept. 2 2005, but his local health department did not receive lab confirmation from the state. After examination, swelling of the brain membrane and spinal cord were found. His symptoms included recurring fever, slowness, vomiting, headache, and stiff neck. Dr. Suhail Siddiqui, from the Infectious Disease Specialists of Central Illinois, ran a diagnosis and believed with the boy had West Nile virus. The boy’s symptoms matched almost exactly to what was expected from a person infected by the West Nile Virus. The boy was reported to have been bitten by a mosquito after junior football practice. No one in the boy’s family however became ill. 123 humans have been reported to have the West Nile disease in the state of Illinois; the majority of these people live close to Chicago.
Salinas, Jess. West Nile Virus. 15 Feb. 2005. Staff Physician, Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Loyola University medical Center. 16 Sep. 2005 <http://www.emedicine.com/pmr/topic236.htm>.
West Nile Virus. 16 Sep. 2005 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Nile_Virus>.
Carson, Bethany. Mount Zion youth recovering from bout of West Nile virus. 12 Sept 2005. H and R Staff Writer. 16 Sep. 2005 <http://www.herald-review.com/articles/2005/09/13/news/local_news/1010056.txt>.
Last edited by Inuyasha on Mon Apr 20, 2009 5:26 am, edited 1 time in total.
I copied it so that i can read it later. Do i have to cite it so that i can read it?
"As a biologist, I firmly believe that when you're dead, you're dead. Except for what you live behind in history. That's the only afterlife" - J. Craig Venter
A few tremarks from my reading. Take it as old-man criticism if you want but maybe it could improve things a little bit.
In your Intro, I would present things the other way round: First the visual aspects, and going down to the more molecular things. And explain what are the pros and cons of variation (1 more sentence)
In the second paragraph ther is much information taht look a bit pile up without order. I would give the frequency of each type of infections. Most of the time the infection is innocuous, sometimes it can evolve to flu-like symptomsand very rarely to meningitis. try to order that around teh way the infection goes: most of the time immune system get rid of it, but can escape enough to cause mild symptoms, and if weak can become cripling... Got the idea?
About the tratment paragraph, saying that what you describe relate only on the most acute infections would not hurt the comprehension.
And finbally why close you paper with the 12 years old boy story? It seems that it would be better as an introduction. At the end, it just seem weird, why is it here? it does not add anything to your paper. If it is the intro, it raises the questions taht you are answering later, and it makes mores sense.
And it's central nervous system...
HTH or just forget
LOL, actually i enjoy critisim. And ur right about most the things. The story should have been on top. Cuz that's the reason i wrote the paper. Oh yeah and i should have edited it more, but c'est la vie. Yeah and i should have talked about the flu since i did gather a ton of information on that, i just didn't know how to use it. So maybe i could submit the paper on line and have u look at it before i turn it in. Cuz i can tell that u know how to write chem and bio papers.[code][/code]
Feel free to do so, If I have time I will give any suggestions... And I may not be the only one.
That's how I see our homework policy: we don't do them, but we can help. As for writing reports that is something you have to do alot as a scientist, and I had to learn. It wasn't easy, and I still have plenty of space for improvements. But at least I start to know the basic rules:
Have an outline of your ideas and how you move from one to the other. Go from the general to the more detailed. And make short sentences (very hard for me )
Good luck for your next papers
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