For discussing the functions of different structures of all organisms.
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Drinking large amounts of water and could cause all of the following EXCEPT?
A) An initial decrease in blood osmolarity followed by osmotic transport of water into the interstitial fluid compartment
B) An initial increase in urine output
C) Osmotic transport of fluid from the ECF into the ICF compartment
D) An increase release of Antidiuretic hormone by the posterior pituitary of the brain
Co-transport of Na+ and Glucose in the apical epithelial membrane of the small intestines and kidney tubule is a type of which kind of transport?
A) Primary active transport
B) Secondary active transport using a uniport
C) Secondary active transport using a symport
D) Secondary active transport using a antiport
The rate of facilitated diffusion of glucose through GLUT4 transported on skeletal muscle occurs fast EXCEPT?
A) When insulin is available
B) During periods of hypoglycemia
C) During the fed state
D) During periods of hyperglycemia
How are calcium ions transported into the cell?
A) By facilitated diffusion
B) By Ca+ ATPase uniports
C) By Na+ Ca+ antiports
D) By simple diffusion through Calcium ion channels when their gates open
Which of the following is TRUE about active cell membrane transport?
A) requires ATP
B) It requires a protein pump
C) It is transport mechanisms of moving ions from an area of low to high concentration
D) All of the above
Which of the following transport mechanisms is responsible for maintaining a high concentration of sodium ions outside of the cell and a high concentration of potassium ion inside of the cell?
A) The Sodium-Potassium ATPase pump
B) The Na+K+ symport
C) Receptor mediated endocytosis
Polar organic monomers, such as glucose, may use what type of transport in order to cross the cell membrane and enter the cell with its concentration gradient?
A) Simple diffusion
B) Facilitated diffusion
C) Ion channels
A patient in kidney failure has elevated blood levels of urea and potassium. The dialysis bag contains a hypertonic solution containing high concentrations of Na+ and glucose along with low concentrations urea and potassium. The membrane of the bag is permeable to potassium, urea, glucose and water. What negative effect might this have on the patient? (PS: this is a common problem that does occur in patients on dialysis)
A) The patient may become hyperglycemic
B) The patient may become hyponatremic (low blood sodium ions)
C) The patients red blood cells may explode
D) The patient will become uremic (increase in blood urea nitrogen)
A dialysis bag of glucose and water is placed in a beaker of water. The bag is permeable only to glucose. When will glucose diffusion into the beaker stop?
A. When there is no glucose left in the bag
B. When there is more glucose in the beaker than in the bag.
C. When the concentration gradient is abolished
D. When the solution in the bag and in the beaker are isotonic
E. C and D
The transport of glucose across the basolateral membrane of the small intestine is by:
A. NA+ glucose symport
B. Secondary active transport
C. Facilitated diffusion
D. Na+ glucose antiport
Which of the following plays a role in the "K+ Equilibrium" across a cell membrane?
A. The attraction of extracellular K+ to negatively charged anions in the cytoplasm
B. The inward diffusion of K+ (due to an electromagnetic gradient) being opposed by the outward diffusion of K+ through K+ leak channels (due to a concentration gradient)
C. All of the above play a role in K+ Equilibrium
Long distance cell to cell communication involves all of the following EXCEPT?
Receptors for some lipophilic ligands (non-polar ligands) are found in the cytoplasm?
Some polar ligands require signal transduction to carry the message into the cell?
What type of cell response occurs due to signal transduction?
A. It may activate or inactive the activity of a metabolic enzyme
B. It may regulate gene activity and protein synthesis
C. It may effect cell membrane transport by opening or closing channels
D) It may cause a muscle to contract or the cytoskeletal to move
E. All of the above.
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