Human Anatomy, Physiology, and Medicine. Anything human!
Did you catch the wink?
My brain was resting, oops, facts are facts.
Hasn't Anthrax been around a long time, like say,
oh way back in the 1600's?
Now, they just found a better way to use it.
They could be putting it in those worms too.
Now, if all these bacterias are mixed together, just think of the Grand Biofilm that would create.
Thanks for the links.
What? Spain in 1997?
Notification of field release of P. fluorescens
F113 genetically modified to over produce Phl under the EU directive for
deliberate release of GMOs (90/220/EC) occurred in Nov 1997 at Granada, Spain with a vetch–maize crop rotation.______________________________________
Future considerations in the implementation of design strategies for
GM microbial inoculants
IMPACT 1 and II EU-funded projects have provided evidence on biosafety of
novel GM P. fluorescens inoculants for use in biocontrol applications. GM P.
fluorescens inoculants displaying enhanced biocontrol efficacy had no ecological
impact on non-target microorganisms in the environment. However, recent
scientific findings concerning interactions between microbial populations in the
soil have provided further insight into areas that need to be addressed in order to
enhance the design and development of GM microbial inoculants for use in agriindustrial
applications. Cell-density-dependent control of gene expression
(quorum sensing, QS) has been identified as important in modulating production
of secondary metabolites. Laue et al. (2000) reported that P. fluorescens F113
produces a number of signal molecules identified as N-acylhomoserine lactones.
Bacterial signal molecules have the potential to play an ecologically significant
role in biocontrol efficacy of P. fluorescens.
Another consideration is the interaction of target microbial populations in the
soil and GM inoculants. Notz and colleagues (2002) provided evidence that
Fusarium oxysporum strains producing fusaric acid altered Phl biosynthetic gene
expression in biocontrol inoculant P. fluorescens CHAO both in vitro and in the
Micro-organisms, have been used extensively in crop protection as well
as bioremediation, and are seen as primary targets for genetic modification to
DISSEMINATION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED
MICROORGANISMS IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS –
CASE STUDIES FOR IDENTIFYING RISK POTENTIALS
The vast majority of genetically engineered organisms are
microorganisms, mainly bacteria. They are engineered for different purposes.
The majority is used for cloning and expression of genes to study their
structure and function. Other genetically engineered microorganisms (GMOs)
are used as vectors to transfer genes from one into another organism. On the
other hand, GMOs are developed for biotechnological applications.
If GMOs are deliberately released into agroecosystems or into polluted
environments, the organisms need to survive and express their phenotype in
order to “do their job”.
and the collembola????
Soil is a heterogeneous habitat and most studies on recombinant gene
transfer were unable to detect gene transfer in bulk soil. In contrast, higher
rates of transfer of mobile genetic elements (plasmids) were observed in the
immediate vicinity of plant roots. These habitats, the rhizospheres, are
characterized by higher levels of nutrients and higher metabolic activities of
soil microorganisms. Our hypothesis was that there are also other microhabitats
which would enhance gene transfer in soil and we decided to analyze
the effect of small soil animals. We chose Collembola (soil microarthropods,
“springtails”) and earthworms for our study.
C. glutamicum and other bacterial donor strains with recombinant
antibiotic resistance plasmids were fed to Folsomia candida (Fig. 3), a soil
inhabiting microarthropod. The experiments were conducted in petri dish
microcosms with water agar on its surface. Each microcosm received 50
specimens of F. candida and the bacteria were placed in the center of the
plate on a nutrient agar cube. Each or every other day the F. candida were
transferred to fresh microcosms and the feces was analyzed for the
occurrence of transcipients, i.e., indigenous bacteria that had acquired the
recombinant plasmid. Donor counter-selection was achieved by cultivating
indigenous bacteria on an agar with antibiotics to which the donor was
sensitive. In addition, the transcipient agar was amended with the antibiotic
to which resistance was encoded on the recombinant plasmid (Hoffmann et
Sorry, no hyperlink available YET. ( The file is a document on my computer)
Now this is fun to read.....
The Indian scientists employed a Bacillus thuringiensis gene to create the resistant pigeon peas they are now testing. In addition to developing crops with resistance to pests, scientists are working on developing resistance to viruses as well. In Kenya, researchers are developing a sweet potato resistant to sweet potato feathery mottle virus. The virus accounts for 80 percent of the yield loss experienced by the Kenyan subsistence farmers who rely on the crop.
For example, scientists from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and DuPont Crop Genetics have developed corn with six times the vitamin E of conventional corn. Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that protects cells from damage by free radicals. Heart disease, diabetes, cataracts and cancer are all linked to free radical damage. In addition, corn with high levels of vitamin E is resistant to spoilage and products made with such corn or oil from such corn will have a longer shelf life. The vitamin E corn still needs to be successfully tested in animal feed applications first, then in human food applications before it will be available. ( YA THINK?!)
. In a first step toward creating animals that make their own omega-3 oils, the Harvard team inserted a gene from a nematode worm into mice. The gene encodes an enzyme called omega-3 fatty acid saturase which transforms omega-6 fatty acids into omega-3 fatty acids. The animals made their own omega-3 fatty acids from their naturally occurring omega-6 oils. The researchers intend to attempt the same feat in chickens soon.
Anyone heard of my favorite worm, the Plan Airs???? Well, they try to keep it a secret This worm is majic....you can pull it apart and it still keeps on ticking. Add water and watch it grow.....
http://220.127.116.11/translate_c?hl=en ... index.html
I won't bore ya anymore w/ bt after this here:
Bt Plant-Pesticides Biopesticides Registration Action Document
Food Clearances/Tolerance Exemptions
The following tolerance exemptions allow the use of the listed plant-pesticides in food and/or feed.
The Cry9C tolerance exemption is limited to corn used for feed only.
a) Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A delta-endotoxin and the genetic material necessary for its
production are exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant-pesticide in
potatoes. [40 CFR 180.1147; 60 FR 21728, May 3, 1995]
b) Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin and the genetic material necessary for its
production (plasmid vector pCIB4431) in corn is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance
when used as a plant-pesticide in the raw agricultural commodities of field corn, sweet corn,
and popcorn. [40 CFR 180.1152; 60 FR 42446, Aug 16, 1995]
c) Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin and the genetic material
necessary for its production in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when
used as plant-pesticides in all plant raw agricultural commodities.[40 CFR 180.1155; 62 FR
17722, Apr. 11, 1997]
d) Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin and the genetic material necessary for its
production in all plants are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance when used as plantpesticides
in all plant raw agricultural commodities. [40 CFR 180.1173; 61 FR 40343, Aug
e) Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies tolworthi Cry9C protein and the genetic material necessary
for its production in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues, only in
corn used for feed; as well as in meat, poultry, milk, or eggs resulting from animals fed
such feed. [40 CFR 180.1192; 63FR 28258, May 22, 1998]
The Disease Detectives
They are the masters of shoe-leather research. When disease strikes, they figure out whodunit
By STEFANIE FRIEDHOFF/ANN ARBOR
ALSO IN THIS ISSUE
Mar. 20, 2006
Table of Contents »
Photos and Graphics »
Keeping The Beaches Safe
Sex, Money and Power In India
Mar. 20, 2006
PLANNING FOR THE PANDEMIC
Sandro Galea is not your typical epidemiologist. Instead of studying microbes, he studies minds--human minds and how they might respond to an outbreak of SARS or Ebola or avian flu. "Once a virus hits the ground, there isn't time to contemplate how the public might react," says Galea. "We need to better understand why people react the way they do and how we can positively influence their behavior." The public psychology of emerging diseases is a new field of research, and Galea, 34, is one of its pioneers. A professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan's School of Public Health, he was studying the psychosocial effects of 9/11 on New Yorkers when he was tapped to look at how Canadians were responding to the 2003 SARS outbreak and quarantines in Toronto.
The first thing he learned was that people tend to react irrationally--rushing to the hospital before they have symptoms, for example, or staying home even when they are desperately ill. "The problem is that the more irrational the public's reactions to an outbreak, the harder it becomes to control and contain the disease," says Galea. Also, the harder the economy is hit: the Congressional Budget Office recently put the potential costs of a flu pandemic in the U.S. at $675 billion—half of it caused by fear and confusion.
Holy Flying Cow!!!!
OMG, is this it Tam Tam?
Did anyone know that the friggin bird/avian influenza has different strains? Did you know that it mutates? Did you know that it has low>
to High Pathogens???
DID YOU? I DID'NT UNTIL NOW.....
DID YOU KNOW THERE HAVE ALREADY BEEN HUMAN CASES IN TEXAS?
MARYLAND AND NEW JERSEY?
( I dunno guys, I have not seen any in California documented, so this is
Here's the links I found:
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/profession ... posure.htm
and don't miss this one:from the WHO:
Could you please tell us which magazine or newspaper that the articles were from? Very interesting, thank you!
We would all love to hear from you more often.....we feel like we are chasing our tails....going around in circles, looking for nformation to help ourselves.
sehr gut mein heir
Genetic structure and related subtypes
H5N1 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus of the Influenzavirus A genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. It is a virus, a type of microscopic intracellular parasite that infects cells in biological organisms. Like all other influenza A subtypes, the H5N1 subtype is an RNA virus. It has a segmented genome of eight negative sense, single-strands of RNA, abbreviated as PB2, PB1, PA, HA, NP, NA, M and NS.
When this opens up, scroll nearly 1/2 way down.
That did not work; will try it again:
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