Human Anatomy, Physiology, and Medicine. Anything human!
Here is a magnificent look at our skin, from this scientist.
"classical geneticist would choose a specific human disease, such as cystic fibrosis or muscular dystrophy, and work his or her way to a defective protein. My laboratory begins with molecular mechanisms, and we work our way to the genetic bases of human diseases that are caused by defects in the proteins we study. We have repeatedly used this reverse genetic approach to successfully elucidate the genetic bases of a variety of human and mouse disorders, ranging from blistering skin disorders and skin tumors/cancers, to a rare form of muscle degeneration and a sensory neurological disorder.".........and
"In the adult, skin epidermis undergoes a constant flux as cells in the innermost layer withdraw from the cell cycle, commit to terminally differentiate, move outward and are sloughed from the body surface. At the surface of the body, these cells must protect themselves from mechanical stresses, and like muscle cells, epidermal keratinocytes produce an elaborate cytoskeleton and are strongly interconnected with their neighbors. How then are epidermal cells able to move through the epithelium and yet maintain their tight adherence necessary to keep harmful microbes out and essential body fluids in so we do not dehydrate? How do epidermal cells respond to injury to downregulate cell adhesion and remodel their cytoskeleton to move to fill a wound site? While we do not yet fully know the answers to these questions, we are learning that the skin epithelium has elaborate and dynamic cellular junctions that utilize the cytoskeleton to establish epithelial polarity and to coordinate cellular movements. We are studying how cells utilize actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments to associate with adhesive junctions and enable cells to adhere to one another and to their underlying substratum. We are also exploring how cells orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics to alter cellular junctions and mold cells into a functioning tissue during development. We would like to know how these morphogenetic programs are modified to achieve self-renewal and wound-healing in adult animals. Ultimately, our goal is to relate the cell biology, genetics and developmental biology of these cells to human medicine.."
Now, this sentence held some interest for me:
"we are learning that the skin epithelium has elaborate and dynamic cellular junctions that utilize the cytoskeleton to establish epithelial polarity and to coordinate cellular movements. We are studying how cells utilize actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments to associate with adhesive junctions and enable cells to adhere to one another and to their underlying substratum."
Can anyone explain epithelial polarity? Or expand upon the definition?
Definition I found:
"Cell polarity during development of Drosophila and zebrafish
Epithelial cells polarize along their apico-basal axis and separate apical from basolateral membrane compartments during development. Mature epithelial cells are highly polarized with separate apical and baso-lateral membrane compartments, each with a unique composition of lipids and proteins. Within mature epithelial tissues, cell polarity regulates cellular morphology, intracellular signaling, asymmetric cell division, cell migration, cellular and tissue physiology as well as complex organ morphogenesis. We are interested in the molecular mechanisms that regulate the polarization of epithelial cells and are using zebrafish and fruitflyDrosophila as our experimental systems. We would like to understand: How do the different protein complexes that establish cell polarity interact with each other? What are the signals by which cell polarity is mediated within cells? How is cell polarity regulated within epithelial sheets during morphogenesis of tissues and organs? Our long-term interest is to understand how the cellular mechanisms controlling cell polarity shape our own bodies."
Epithelial polarity matters:
http://www.rosalindfranklin.edu/cms/ana ... img15.html
I still want to know how Muscular Dystrophy came about>..............
Lets get into the cell level. Must be some scientists out there that can explain some of this:
Please do come forward and work with us.
Would this be at the heart of what we call Morgellons? After all, we do feel a morphogenesis going on, at least I do.
"Epithelial polarity and morphogenesis.
The most fundamental type of organization cells in metazoa is that of epithelia. Epithelial cells form sheets of cells that line surfaces and internal cavities. The simplest metazoa, such as hydra, consist largely of two concentric cylinders of epithelial cell sheets. Most internal organs in higher animals, such as the respiratory, digestive, genito-urinary and vascular systems are lined by a single layer of epithelial cells. We are studying both the structure of individual epithelial cells and how they are organized into multicellular tissues and organs. We are focused on three basic questions:
1. How is the polarization of epithelial cells determined? Epithelial cells are highly polarized, with an apical surface facing the lumen of the cavity and a basolateral surface facing other cells and extracellular matrix. Epithelial cells have a conserved set of protein complexes, such as the Par3/Par6 complex, which are needed to become polarized. Upstream of these complexes, we have discovered a new pathway that determines the orientation of polarization, that is which way the cell points. Alterations in this pathway can cause cells to reverse polarity, so that the apical surface now points away from the central lumen. We have found that this pathway starts with assembly of the laminin-rich extracellular matrix around the cells, followed by integrin signaling at the basolateral surface. The signal for orientation of polarity must then move across the cells; this may be mediated by transcellular movement of the small GTPase, Cdc42. Finally, Cdc42 apparently promotes the organization of the Par3/Par6 and other complexes at the apical surface of the cell.
2. Once the initial orientation of polarity is determined, how does the cell execute this program to become fully polarized? The apical and basolateral surfaces of the cell have completely different protein and lipid compositions, and so the cell has mechanisms to specifically sort these components to one surface or the other. The lipid phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-P3 (PIP3) is a crucial determinant of this process. Normally PIP3 is found only at the basolateral surface. Ectopic localization of PIP3 to the apical surface can transform this apical surface into basolateral surface, by causing the relocalization of normally basolateral proteins to the apical surface, as well as removal of apical proteins from this transformed surface. Proteins and lipids are transported to the apical or basolateral surfaces by vesicular carriers. The fusion of these carriers with the surface involves syntaxin proteins, which are found on the target membrane. We have found that syntaxin 4 is exclusively basolateral, while syntaxin 3 is exclusively apical. Ectopic localization of syntaxin 3 to the basolateral surface causes misdelivery of apical proteins to the basolateral surface. This data indicate that PIP3 and syntaxins specify where vesicles are delivered to in the cell.
3. The basic building block of most epithelial organs are tubes, lined by epithelial cells. How do epithelial cells organize themselves into tubes? We have found that when epithelia cells remodel to form tubes, they start by partially dedifferentiating, losing their epithelial polarity and taking on many of the properties of migrating fibroblasts. The cells then migrate to positions where they will form the new tube. The cells then re-differentiate, reacquiring epithelial polarity and creating new lumens between the cells. Tubulogenesis can thus be conceptualized as occurring in two stages, dedifferentiation and re-differentiation."SOURCE:
"But to build a tissue, a population of cells must coordinate these individual behaviors across space and time. Little is understood about the mechanisms that orchestrate the actions of single cells during morphogenesis. To analyze these issues, we are studying how epithelial cells form three-dimensional organs. Epithelia are coherent sheets of cells that form a barrier between the interior of the body and the outside world. Internal epithelial organs contain two types of building blocks, cysts and tubules. Our experimental strategy uses culture of epithelial cells in a three-dimensional extracellular matrix. Single cells plated in matrix grow to form hollow cysts lined by a monolayer of cells. We have discovered a pathway containing the small GTPase, rac1, alpha1-beta3 integrin, and laminin, which coordinates cell polarity, so that apical surfaces of the cells are all oriented towards the cyst lumen. Cysts are remodeled into by growth factors, which cause transient dedifferentiation and migration, followed by redifferentiation into polarized epithelial cells lining the tubule."
And this would connect the Metazoan to us? You evolutionists know of which I speak? No?
Was that how it was 500 years ago? or do we need morphgenesis to go into a different time period?
any physicists out there?
Tell me more.........
Are we thick skinned or thin skinned?
http://www.rosalindfranklin.edu/cms/ana ... /img5.html
http://www.rosalindfranklin.edu/cms/ana ... /img6.html
I think I am thin skinned. But, I have accepted that.
I will have to read your post in a wee bit-but they do look rather interesting.
Tam- thanks for the enterocc. info.
Not to be mean, but I think cliff is an intelligent being. I disagree though when you said you could think of no better to expain this than he and Jan.
I think his writings are very fuzzy and hard to read. very.
Sabrina, are you a fan of jimmy kimmells girlfriend?
The underlying problem to Downs Syndrome?
Down syndrome and other neurodegenerative diseases may be caused by impairments in signaling and transport of neurotrophins, according to two studies released this week in Neuron, challenging the hypothesis that an inadequate supply of these essential brain chemicals is to blame. And for Down syndrome, a condition in which several hundred genes are triplicated due to a trisomy of chromosome 21, one gene associated with Alzheimer's disease may be the chief culprit.
"You can stop thinking of Down syndrome as this murky area where you'll never discover specific genes that make a difference," said William Mobley of Stanford University, the senior author of the study that focused on Down syndrome. "
and there would be no relation to polio or visna mixture in mycoplama itself, that would have anything to do with neurotrophins, or dystrophins, or entangling brain trophins would there?
On a molecular bacterial basis?
Seems 21 is the indicator of MD too? or am I wrong here? Now, it is linked to Alzheimers?
It is only in the genes because that is where the MUTATION took place, due to VIRUS.....
Tell me I am wrong, please!
Downs - supposedly was an extra chromosome? And was that inserted to bring us closer to the mammal?
And then the increase in Alzheimers units because it was known that that would be the end stage?
All connected isn't it? Polio was the beginning, right?
Thinking is good for all.
I got your message. and thus have since found other articles that whet my appetite to learn more about this Enterococcus. One was from the Pastuer Int. on how the pathenogens evade testing. But regardless, I have found some interesting things. Here is one here on Enterococcus.
So, Tam, thanks and never forget....i gave you my word
In order to infect, enterococci must first be able to colonize, primarily at mucosal surfaces. From the site of colonization, the organism must then evade the host clearance, and ultimately produce pathologic changes in the host, either through direct toxic activity, or indirectly by inducing an inflammatory response (40).
Last edited by London on Fri Jul 07, 2006 10:26 pm, edited 1 time in total.
oh, as far as your other riddle, yes, I'm very aware of plant pathenogens.
as you probably know, I''m aware of biological control. very. still, does not make right though, huh? to kill the lil pest that cost them millions of crops I know is important. but by god, not at the sake of harming humans. But yet, please do not insult my intelligence.....it goes waaayyy
deeper then that. David rock proclaimed this 30 damn years ago. It's now came to fruition huh?
well, then we are all going to hell in a hand basket. Some of us will get genetic tested, then what?
Hey, I play the wicked game fair. got it? Like I said, they have givin me a gift.....and it just keeps on giving.
if you care to discuss anything.....here's what i want to know.....
is the treatment a waste of time and money? Is it worthless?
if you can tell me that then i will go away.....if not, do not fear, for I will still stand in shadows but not say anything.
I saw some suspicious people today anyway. They need to back off. I do not want to see them again. I do so hope you understand it. I have the mans license being ran now....you want me to post it? Get them to back the f. off. !
I mean what I say/ I don't play. You know me by now. You go away-I go away....simplicity is the essence of beauty is it not?
PS: $ 86 is more than $30 yeah right? well you can say 86 is modest too.
Last edited by London on Fri Jul 07, 2006 10:31 pm, edited 1 time in total.
I had to leave for a while. I have not got around to your postings, but when I finish reading them, I will comment. I have multi tasking going on and I don;t just mean computer. On phone w. docs too. did not make it to my apnt today, b/c of stupid man that was around. should have just knocked him out of my way. hah! better he than me....
Been reading about the Players from Memphis. Lil Interesting here.
goodbye, I await your answer.....that is all i want to know before I start any treatment.
so dammit, answer me soon.
Hey diddle diddle
the cat and the fiddle
the cow jumped over the moon.........
hoping to hear from you soon. You got my email, my pm and even my #
so there should be no problem. Voracity would be nice. If only one time, this is all I want.
I do so hope this is not HIV, Sabrina said it was not, so I believe her.
Dear God it best not be. If so, I'm already dead so wtf would it matter?
Genetic test I WILL get. Money I do not think will be an issue here, will it?
Hey Daniel, I finished reading ch 23.
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