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all 'bout Immunology or Immunobiology

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all 'bout Immunology or Immunobiology

Postby victor » Fri Aug 05, 2005 12:04 pm

Hi there, I wanna ask something..We know that in the intracellular destruction of fagolysosom, there are 2 ways which is dependent oxygen reaction and independent oxygen reaction.
What I wanna ask is about the NO which is prodeuced as a microbisidal agent.
In the book, I found that NO is produced by independent oxygen reaction by some reaction of the arginine-basic rich protein but, NO is also produced by the INOS (inducible nitric-acid synthase) reaction. So, what point is the correct one?? or two of them are correct??
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Postby Dr.Stein » Sat Aug 06, 2005 9:35 am

Nitric oxide (NO) is an inorganic, gaseous free radical that carries a variety of messages between cells. Vasorelaxation, neurotransmission and cytotoxicity can all be potentiated through cellular response to NO.

NO production is generated by lysosomal NADPH oxidases and mediated by members of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) family, one of them is iNOS, in a process known as the respiratory burst, as it is accompanied by a transient increase in oxygene consumption.

NOS catalyzes the oxidization of L-arginine to produce L-citrulline and NO. Two constitutive isoforms, brain or neuronal NOS (b or nNOS, type I) & endothelial cell NOS (eNOS, type III), and one inducible isoform (iNOS, type II), have been cloned. All NOS isoforms contain calmodulin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) binding domains.

iNOS is found in a variety of cell types including macrophages, hepatocytes, synoviocytes, and smooth muscle cells. Cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 and -2, and lipopolysaccarides (LPS) cause an increase in iNOS mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Protein kinase C-stimulating agents exhibit the same effect on iNOS activity. After cytokine induction, iNOS exhibits a delayed activity response which is then followed by a significant increase in NO production over a long period of time.

victor: In a short way I can say that both processes you mentioned is a single idea: iNOS works in arginine-contained protein to produce NO by the presence of oxygene :wink:
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Postby victor » Sat Aug 06, 2005 1:24 pm

The process to create NO by catalyses l-arginine using iNOS system comsume O2. It means that NO is grouped into dependent oxygen reaction...ok-ok I see....
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Postby victor » Tue Aug 16, 2005 1:13 pm

Hey..hey..can you say the right chemical reaction?? (in the immune system)
1. H2O2 + Cl2 ---> 2HClO
2. H2O2 + HCl ---> HClO +H2O

Which reaction in resulting hypochlorites is true??or both of them are wrong??... :lol: ..I'm sorry if both of them are wrong because I make the reaction equation by myself.. :lol:

PS: it's happen in the immune system so the true one must be mede in our immune system.
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Postby victor » Mon Aug 29, 2005 12:51 pm

Hey, does anyone want to answer my question???
I have a question...do you think that antibiotics beside make us cured from pathogenic bacterias, they also reduce our immune system???
If yes, can you give me some references for that?
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Postby Poison » Tue Aug 30, 2005 4:25 pm

they also reduce our immune system?


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Postby mith » Tue Aug 30, 2005 9:47 pm

making us dependent on the antibiotic and lessens the training of memory cells? probably not since your antibiotic will not immediately wipe out all the bacteria.
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Postby Poison » Wed Aug 31, 2005 5:19 pm

Very long term usage may cause harm to your body. But we shouldn't forget that we are using antibiotics for a purpose and should use them when necessary.
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Postby MrMistery » Wed Aug 31, 2005 8:36 pm

Ozge is absolutely right. That is why most antibiotics say on the box: "Only to be used under recommandation of the physician"
This reminds me of a funny story..
I went to the pharmacy a while back to get something called codein for my cauthing(i have a very mild case of asthma, or so they think, do not need an inhailer)and the lady there said i need a perscription because they are narcotics almost as strong as morphein. I had been using them for a long time and i still use them... My doctor said that they are perfectly Ok... Still, strange thing to happen
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Postby iri_black » Thu Sep 01, 2005 7:55 am

Codeine is derived from opium as far as I know.....you jonkey :D
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Postby MrMistery » Thu Sep 01, 2005 5:36 pm

Really? So i have been a drug addict for some years now without knowing it? And to think i wanted to sign up as a drug-fighting volunteer this year :D
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Postby Dr.Stein » Sat Sep 03, 2005 8:35 am

Yeah, that's true. It is normal that we use morphine, codeine, amphetamine and all kinda things in medical purpose. They are analgesia or transquilizers or things we need to anethetize patients. Of course we calculate the dose very well not to result in adverse effect e.g. addiction. But, my doctor once made a mistake on giving me the dose. I gor over-dosed on amphetamine grrr :twisted: and I need to do rehabilitation or detoxication for a while :twisted: :twisted: But, it was a good experience, I know how to be a jonkey 8) :lol:
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