Genetics as it applies to evolution, molecular biology, and medical aspects.
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I was working with my fellow student's on some questions in biochemistry/ genetics, and this one we could not agree on
Cloned Organism's (witch is most correct?):
a) ... Have reduced ability to grow "as normal"
b) ... Are always genotypic and phenotypic identical
c) ... can not multiply/ reproduce using sex (or: "by a sexual mechanism")
d) ... are "manufactored" using gene technology
e) ... are genotypic identical, but might be phenotypic different
We have excludet a, b and d.
My view: When an organism is cloned/reproduced, e.g. bacteria, they obv. don't have sex and if you isolatet one bacteria, and it would clone itself, there would be small gentic differences in the bacteria- population becouse of mutations.
This also rules out statemant E, becouse mutations would make the cloned organisme a little genetic different from the "host- organism".
also: if an organism where to be "phenotypic different" from it's host, it would need one pair of allele's to express the difference, and I think you can only (?) get one pair through sex. If it wern't for sex, there would only be one (?) allele to choose from, thous the cloned organism must be phenotypic identicall to it's host.
their view: a cloned organism is genetic identical to it's host
am I totaly wrong here? They were very sure they had the right answear on this one
You better look to Dolly, than to some bacteria
Ideally, it should grow as normal organism (look to the bacteria or plants)
Genetically, it should be identical, but they may be pointing to mitochondira...
Phenytope does not have to be the same IMHO, as you may scrue up e.g. the chromatin modelling
They do not have to be manufactured, think about plants. If you put some piece into soil, you could get new plant and it will be clone...
Of course, it depends on your definitions...
Cis or trans? That's what matters.
Interesting question. I would first pick d as the answer to the question of which is the most correct. "Cloning" is gene technology. You have to grab the DNA out of a somatic cell, and stick it into a cell that has been enucleated, to get the clone cell (albeit, a plant cell or an one-cell stage animal cell), and that is gene transfer technology.
Propagation of plants by asexual means, such as sticking some cells already developed into the soil is not a cloning organism, but just an asexual propagation. Right?
the answer a is my next choice. We still have yet to unravel the cloning technique of the epigenetic program of the somatic cell's DNA genome, reprogramming it, and then sticking it into the undifferentiated enucleated oocyte (animal example. do not know what the cloning organism technique for plants is?) for development. It still seems to be a small percentage of cloning experiments that actually develop into an organism.
Shoot, we still have problems just fertilizing an egg with a sperm in vitro. We still have a long way to go in knowing the molecular mechanisms of development.
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