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Phyla Porifera and Cnidaria

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Phyla Porifera and Cnidaria

Postby purplec16 » Tue Feb 02, 2010 12:32 am

I wanted to know if you guys could help me out by explaining these questions to me cause I dont get a clear understanding of it from my zoology book:

Which form of parasitism do sponges usually engage in?
Sponges use secondary metabolites, because they can not move, when the sponge becomes threatened they release the secondary metabolites that have cytotoxic, antibiotic and feeding deterrent properties.

What mechanism do sponges adapt to protect itself from suspecting predators?
They produce toxins and or unpleasant tastes and odors to protect themselves from predators, or if the sponge’s osculum is threatened they prevent coral growth.

By which means do Cnidarians seize and consumer faster organisms?
I dont really understand what this question is asking...

What adaptations of sponges and cnidarians have helped them to endure for so long on earth?
Sponges use preditious ways in which they can protect themselves from predators, they are able to reproduce asexually, im really not sure...

The body forms of the sponge that are on display are the epidermis (pinacoycte), ostium, osculum, and the spicules. is this statement true?
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Re: Phyla Porifera and Cnidaria

Postby firechild » Tue Feb 02, 2010 1:23 am

Which form of parasitism do sponges usually engage in?

Sponges are ectoparasites but I'm not aware fo a more specific description of the type of parastism they engage in.

What mechanism do sponges adapt to protect itself from suspecting predators?

Sponges use silicious spicules as a physical defense mechanism and secondary metabolites as chemical defense.

By which means do Cnidarians seize and consumer faster organisms?

Cnidarians use nematocysts (barbed, harpoon-like projections) to capture prey. Most species also produce venoms that are injected via the nematocysts to disable prey. Nematocysts cause the prey to "stick" to the cnidarian.

What adaptations of sponges and cnidarians have helped them to endure for so long on earth?

Basic body plan and rapid asexual reproduction are the biggest factors. Physical and chemical defenses also help.
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Postby purplec16 » Tue Feb 02, 2010 1:41 am

Are you sure about the one with the Cnidarians seize and consume faster organisms, if so can you explain the question and answer a little more to me please
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Postby firechild » Tue Feb 02, 2010 2:09 am

I am 100% sure about that one. Not sure what part of the question needs explaining, it is simply asking how cnidarians capture and ingest/digest prey. The nematocysts (google this word, there is HEAPS of information about them) allow the animal to hold the prey and venom is injected. The venom is often a neurotoxin that disables the prey and prevents too much damage to the soft bodied cnidarian. There are also chemicals injected that begin the digestion process. When the prey is ingested, more digestive chemicals are used.
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