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Bio Application Problem

Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a particular topic.

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Bio Application Problem

Postby andrew2322 » Tue Mar 25, 2008 5:24 am

Hi all please check my answers and comment on accuracy/relevance of my answers - expect more of these from me :P

Q.) Several Patogenic Bacteria (e.g., Baccilus anthracis, the cause of anthrax) produce an outermost mucoid layer called a capsule. Capsules may be composed of polysaccharide or protein. What effect do you think this coat would have on a bacteriums interactions with an anima's immune system?

My Answer: The capsule will prevent the proteins embedded in the plasma membrane from coming into contact with antibodies which inturn make it harder for the immune system to detect and fight off the pathogen. Furthermore, to a certain extent may provide some antibiotic resistance to certain antibiotics which prevents the cell walls/plasma membranes from further developing and forcing the immune system to fight it off on its own accord, it could also possibly hinder the process of endocytosis by macrophages.

Q.) Eukaryotic cells are more highly specialized than prokaryotic cells. Can you suggest some advantages and disadvantages of specialization?

My Answer: The highly specialized nature of eukaryotic cells limit its ability to survive elsewhere independently. Most specialized cells belong to particular part of an organism where what they need to survive on is in abundance (erythrocytes + iron in bloodstream) whereas prokaryotic cells can thrive independently because they dont require particular substances to live. Eukaryotic cells on the contrary are highly competent cells that are performing many higher level functions such as reasoning(neurons) and the breakdown of ethanol after alcohol consumption by hepatocytes (liver cells)


Q.) In addition to providing support, the cytoskeleton also immobolizes the enzyme and organelles in the cytoplasm. What advantage does this immobolization have over allowing the cell contents to freely diffuse in the cytoplasm?

My answer: Enzymes can be very harmful if allowed to freely diffuse through the cytoplasm, if lysosomal enzymes are let loose through the lysosome, it would disolve many vital molecules and ions that are present in the cytoplasm, and may even disolve the plasma membrane, which could lead to devastating effects, or even the cell's death.


thanks guys, just a note, please dont laugh at my answer, im not the brightest dude around :P
andrew2322
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