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Biology Articles » Virology » How Do Viral and Host Factors Modulate the Sexual Transmission of HIV? Can Transmission Be Blocked? » Box 1

Box 1
- How Do Viral and Host Factors Modulate the Sexual Transmission of HIV? Can Transmission Be Blocked?

Box 1. Future Directions for Research

 

  • Study transmission risk and viral load in plasma and genital secretions.

  • Correlate cell-free and cell-associated viral load in genital secretions to risk of transmission.

  • Investigate effect of vaccines on peak viral loads.

  • Define the impact of co-pathogens (especially STDs) and hormones on vaccine and/or microbicide effectiveness in efficacy trials.

  • Weigh the contribution of HIV–DC interaction to transmission in animal experiments.

  • Isolate HIV from genital secretions.

  • Identify mechanisms that restrict HIV replication in genital tract explants, including innate immunity.

  • Evaluate mucosal boosting after systemic priming in order to induce genital immune responses.

  • Evaluate inclusion of HIV-1 antigens, especially Env protein, as immunogens in microbicides.

  • Improve mucosal immunogenicity—e.g., by incorporating Toll-like receptor ligands in vaccines/microbicides.

 


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