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Biology Articles » Biochemistry » Nucleic Acid Biochemistry » Unregulated Hazards ‘Naked’ and ‘Free’ Nucleic Acids » Box 1: Naked nucleic acids in genetic engineering biotechnology

Box 1: Naked nucleic acids in genetic engineering biotechnology
- Unregulated Hazards ‘Naked’ and ‘Free’ Nucleic Acids

DNA - based

Viral genomes, eg, cauliflower mosaic virus, cytomegalovirus, vaccinia, baculovirus, adenovirus, SV40, many bacteriophages

cDNA of RNA viral genomes, eg, retroviruses SIV, HIV, Rous Sarcoma virus, mouse Moloney virus

Plasmids, eg, Ti of Agrobacterium, many plasmids from E. coli and yeast, often carrying antibiotic resistance genes

Transposons, eg, many broad host range transposons from E. coli with antibiotic resistance genes, some from Drosophila, such as mariner are found in all kingdoms

Artificial vectors made by recombining viral genomes, plasmids and transposons, carrying one or more antibiotic resistance genes; used for gene amplification, DNA sequencing, transfection, gene therapy, etc. [5], many are shuttle-vectors designed for replication in more than one species, ‘pantropic’ vectors cross many species barriers

Naked DNA vaccines, plasmid-based, viral vector based [6]

Artificial chromosomes: yeast (YAC) plasmid (PAC) and mammalian (MAC) made from telomeric and centromeric repeat sequences [7]

Artificial constructs: transgene cassettes, often include antibiotic resistance gene cassettes

PCR amplified sequences

Oligodeoxynucleotides (antisense), hairpin-forming oligodeoxynucleotides used in gene therapy [8]

RNA - based

Antisence RNA used in gene therapy

Ribozymes used in gene therapy [9]

Self-replicating RNA (linked to RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) used in gene therapy [10]

RNA vaccines

RNA-DNA hybrid

Chimeroplasty hairpins used in targeted gene mutation [11]


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