On the tenth anniversary of the proposal of the torsional mechanism of energy transduction and
ATP synthesis, a unified theory of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis by the various biomolecular
machines of the cell has been formulated. Complete details of the molecular mechanisms of the
fundamental biological processes of ATP synthesis/hydrolysis and muscle contraction have been
provided and the inconsistencies present in all previous theories have been removed. The new theory
has been shown to be consistent with both the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The new
mechanisms have been shown to be in agreement with the immense amount of experimental data in the
literature and provide logical explanations and a theoretical basis for all the experimental observations.
The novel framework has generated a large number of predictions that can be tested experimentally.
Our theory is now ideally positioned to guide the design of new experiments, rationalize and interpret
experimental data, and catalyze the progress of future theoretical research in this important
My research program has been generously funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology,
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India through the Swarnajayanti Research
Project, DST/SF/Life-102/2005 entitled, “Molecular Machines: Mechanism and Thermodynamics”
under the Swarnajayanti Fellowships for “promotion of basic research of world standard.” I sincerely
thank and greatly appreciate the following scientists and engineers for numerous helpful discussions
over the years on various aspects of the topic in parenthesis: Dr. C. Channakeshava (molecular mechanism of muscle contraction), Hirdesh Rohatgi (molecular mechanism of ATP
synthesis/hydrolysis), Dr. Victor Wray (apoptosis and cell death) and Bhawana Agarwal (experimental
investigation of ATP synthesis).