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The morphological concept of Trichoderma koningii is found to include several species …


Biology Articles » Biogeography » The Trichoderma koningii aggregate species » The species of the Trichoderma koningii aggregate

The species of the Trichoderma koningii aggregate
- The Trichoderma koningii aggregate species

THE SPECIES OF THE TRICHODERMA KONINGII AGGREGATE  
(continuous characters used in the PCA are presented in Table 3)

 

  1. Trichoderma austrokoningii Samuels & Druzhinina, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501032. Figs 6–8, 51–59, 71–101.

    Teleomorph: Hypocrea austrokoningii Samuels & Druzhinina, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501033. Figs 24–27, 60–70.

    Etymology: Refers to a similarity to T. koningii and to Australia, the locality of the type collection.
    Stromata rufobrunnea, H. rufae (Fr.) Fr. similia. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (3.2–)3.5–4.2(–5.0) x (2.7–) 3.2–3.7(–4.2) µm, pars proxima (3.2–)2.5–4.5(–5.0) x 2.7–)3.0–3.5(–4.2) µm. Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis, conidia viridia, late ellipsoidea, (3.2–)3.5–4.2(–4.7) x (2.0–)2.2–2.7(–3.2) µm, ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (0.9–)1.2–1.6(–1.7). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 33–35 mm.
    Holotypus H. austrokoningii BPI 870962; holotypus anamorphosis T. austrokoningii cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 870962B.
    Stromata scattered, semi-effused and lenticular to irregular in outline, to pulvinate or tuberculate, 8D–E8 (English-red to reddish brown), not reacting to KOH, 1–2 mm diam, broadly attached with edges slightly free, plane, appearing velvety or smooth, perithecial elevations not evident, ostiolar openings not visible. Cells of stroma surface in face view circular, 3.5–9 x 2.5–5.5 µm, often in chains of 2–4 cells, walls ca. 1.5 µm thick, unevenly pigmented. Surface region of stroma 10–25 µm thick, composed of pigmented, pseudoparenchymatous cells 1.5–5.5 x 2.0–4.5 µm, walls ca. 1.5 µm thick. Tissue below the stroma surface region of intertwined hyhae. Perithecia elliptic in section, 175–300 µm high, 120–150 µm wide; ostiolar canal 55–75 µm long; perithecial apex protruding slightly through the stroma surface, formed of narrow hyphal elements. Tissue below the perithecia comprising vertically elongated, thin-walled cells, (6–)10–20(–30) x (4.5–)5.2–10(–14) µm. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong or slightly ellipsoidal.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 25–30 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in intermittent light forming conidia within 48 h at 25 °C; after 96 h in light, conidial production in 2 concentric rings. Conidia on PDA and CMD 26E–F8 (deep green to dark green). No pigment diffusing through the agar; no distinctive odour. Colonies grown on CMD at 20–25 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk, conidia abundant, continuously dispersed around the colony margin and also forming in few 1–2 mm diam cottony pustules; individual conidiophores visible within the pustules, completely fertile to the tip. Conidiophores more ore less symmetrical, comprising a recognizable main axis, 2–3 µm wide, fertile branches arising along the length of the main axis, often paired, with longer or shorter internodes. Branches arising at an angle of slightly less than 90° with respect to the main axis, longer branches near the base and short branches or solitary phialides arising near the tip; branches rebranching or producing phialides directly; branches producing phialides at the tip and often along the length. Phialides typically straight, lageniform, cylindrical or slightly swollen in the middle, held in whorls of 3 or 4, sometimes crowded when formed within a pustule; intercalary phialides formed but uncommon. Conidia broadly ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores not observed.

    Habitat: Bark of hardwood trees.

    Known distribution: Australia (Queensland), possibly also New Zealand, Republic of China (Taiwan), Russia, United States (Florida).

    Holotype: Australia, Queensland, Wongakill State Forest, ca. 10 km S of Atherton, on bark of decaying log, 30 Aug. 1999, K. Põldmaa 238 (BPI 870962A; holotype of anamorph = BPI 870962B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 99-146 = CBS 119092).

    Paratype: Data as for the holotype, on wood, K. Põldmaa 240 (BPI 870963A; dry culture = culture BPI 870963B; live culture: G.J.S. 99-147 = CBS 119079 = ICMP 16282).

    Additional specimens examined: New Zealand, North Island, Auckland, Te Aroha, substratum not known, Feb. 1963, J. M. Dingley No. 3 (specimen not located, culture CBS 247.63, as H. vinosa); South Island, Westland, Buller River Gorge, "Sinclair's Castle", the point where the Ohikanui River joins the Buller River, 41°51' S, 171°43' E, elev. 50 m, along flood plain of the Ohikani River, on Nothofagus menziesii, 6 Sep. 1999, G.J.S. 8698 & S. Dodd (PDD 83836; culture G.J.S. 99-116 = CBS 119080 = ICMP 16280). Republic of China, Taiwan, Fushan Botanical Garden, on decorticated wood, 13 July 1996, M.-L. Wu 960713T8 (BPI 744491, culture G.J.S. 96-163 = CBS 119078). Russia, Kostroma Region, Manturovo, forest near the river, on rotting wood of Alnus glutinosa, 21 Aug. 1999, A. Alexandrova 434 (BPI 842331; culture G.J.S. 00-73 = CBS 119077). U.S.A., Florida, Alachua County, San Felasco Hammock State Preserve, on rotten log, 10 Aug. 1985, C.T. Rogerson (NY: culture C.T.R. 85-57 = CBS 119076).

    Notes: The description given above is based on the two cited Australian collections. We specifically did not designate specimens not found in Queensland as paratypes because there is reason to doubt that they are truly collections of T. austrokoningii.

    Trichoderma austrokoningii s. lat., T. dingleyae and T. dorotheae occur in Australia and New Zealand. In Australasia, T. austrokoningii is known from a tropical region of Australia, the Queensland Coast, and from subtropical (CBS 247.63) to temperate (G.J.S. 99-116) parts of New Zealand (Figs 80–88). The teleomorphs of these species are indistinguishable. Conidia of T. dingleyae and T. dorotheae are longer and, especially, wider than are those of T. austrokoningii. Conidia in the Australian collections of T. austrokoningii (Figs 51–59) are shorter [(2.5–)3.0–3.5(–4.2) µm, CI = 3.3–3.4 µm] than are those of the other collections of this species. Growth (Fig. 102) of T. austrokoningii at 30 °C on PDA is the same as at 25 °C (radius = ca. 30 mm after 72 h), whereas growth of the two New Zealand isolates is considerably slower at 30 °C (radius = at 25 °C (radius = ca. 30 mm). Australian collections of T. austrokoningii grow faster on SNA than either T. dingleyae or T. dorotheae or any of the other cited collections of T. austrokoningii (colony radius for Australian T. austrokoningii at 25 and 30 °C = 25–35 mm as compared to a radius of at 25 °C and T. dingleyae, T. dorotheae and the other collections of T. austrokoningii).
    In Taiwan the occurrence of T. austrokoningii overlaps with that of T. taiwanense. Trichoderma taiwanense has larger conidia and somewhat smaller part-ascospores than does the Taiwanese collection of T. austrokoningii.

  2. Trichoderma caribbaeum Samuels & Schroers var. caribbaeum, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501034. Figs 9, 103–112.

    Teleomorph: Hypocrea caribbaea Samuels & Schroers, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501035. Figs 28–29, 113–121.

    Etymology: In reference to the Caribbean Ocean region where the species has been collected.
    Stromata pallide ad aurantio-brunnea, H. rufae (Fr.) Fr. similia. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (2.7–)3.2–4.2(–4.7) x (2.5–)3.0–3.5(–4.0) µm; pars proxima (2.7–) 3.5–4.7(–5.2) x (2.5–)2.7–3.2(–3.7) µm. Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis, conidia viridia, ellipsoidea, (3.5–)3.7–4.5(–4.7) x (2.2–)2.5–3.2(–3.5) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (1.0–)1.2–1.6 (–1.9). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 53–56 mm.
    Holotypus H. caribbaea BPI 746700; holotypus anamorphosis T. caribbaeum cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 746700B.
    Stroma scattered, light brown to brownish orange (6C–6D), not reacting to KOH, discrete, 0.5–1.0 mm diam, irregular or nearly circular in outline, more or less pulvinate, broadly attached; plane, appearing smooth, perithecial elevations not evident or appearing as low tubercules, ostiolar openings barely visible as slightly dark areolae, young stroma appearing velvety. Hyphal hairs arising from the stroma surface 7–10 µm long, septate, 2–3 µm wide, absent from mature stromata. Cells of the stroma surface in face view pseudoparenchymatous, 4–10 µm diam, walls thickened, unevenly pigmented. Surface region of the stroma 20–35 µm thick, composed of pigmented, compact, pseudoparenchymatous cells with thickened walls. Tissue below the stroma surface of intertwined hyphae or more compact and then more or less pseudoparenchymatous. Tissue below the perithecia pseudoparenchymatous, cells 8–12 x 5–7 µm, thin-walled. Perithecia subglobose, 150–210 µm high, 80–150 µm wide; ostiolar canal 60–80 µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from the cells of the stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a minute pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose to slightly conical.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 25–30 °C. Colonies grown on PDA with faint concentric rings and poor conidial production after 96 h at 25–30 °C. Colonies grown on SNA producing abundant aerial mycelium, sterile after 96 h. Conidia green (27E7–8), without yellow coloration. No pigment diffusing through the agar, no distinctive odour. Conidia forming slowly on PDA, after 72–96 h at 20 °C, later at higher temperatures. Colonies grown on CMD at 20 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk; conidia forming in scattered pustules in concentric rings; pustules to 1 mm diam, tending to coalesce, dense; conidia also forming well apart from the pustules in the scant aerial mycelium. Conidiophores projecting from the pustules, entirely fertile or sparingly branched along the length, sometimes bearing only one or a few phialides at the tip but otherwise sterile. Conidiophores highly intricated within the pustule, a strongly developed main axis not discernable, lateral branches tending to be solitary, paired branches uncommon. Phialides held in cruciate to verticillate whorls of 3 or 4 or arising singly, especially near the tip of the main axis and along the length of branches, straight, lageniform, somewhat swollen in the middle; intercalary phialides present but not common. Conidia ellipsoidal to nearly oblong, smooth. Chlamydospores produced sparingly on CMD, terminal on hyphae, subglobose, (n = 30) (5.5–)6.7–10(–11) µm diam.

    Habitat: On pyrenomycetes (incl. Xylariaceae) and decorticated wood.

    Known distribution: Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico.

    Holotype: Guadeloupe, Rain forest St. Claude, Basse Terre, on?Penzigia on Bambusa vulgaris, 11 Jan. 1997, J. Vivant Guad 97-03, comm. F. Candoussau (teleomorph: BPI 746700; holotype of T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum a dry culture BPI 746700B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 97-3 = CBS 119093, culture derived from ascospore isolates of the Hypocrea sp. teleomorph).

    Additional specimen examined: Puerto Rico, Río Grande, Caribbean National Forest, Luquillo Mts., Trade Winds Trail, elev. 950 m, on fungus on decorticated wood, 11 June 1998, G.J.S. (BPI 748388, culture G.J.S. 98-43 = CBS 119054).

    Notes: Trichoderma caribbaeaum var. caribbaeum is sympatric in Puerto Rico with T. stilbohypoxyli and T. intricatum. For comparison of these species see the discussion under T. intricatum.

  3. Trichoderma caribbaeum var. aequatoriale Samuels & H.C. Evans, var. nov. MycoBank MB500561. Figs 122–133.

    Etymology: "Aequatoriale" in reference to Ecuador, where the species has been found.
    Conidiophora mononemata, verticillata vel in pustulis orientia, T. koningii Oudem. similia. Conidia viridia, late ellipsoidea, (2.5–)3.0– 3.5(–3.7) x (1.1–)1.2–1.6(–2.1) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (1.2–)1.3–1.5(–1.9). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate ca. 45 mm.
    Holotypus cultura sicca, BPI 870965.
    Teleomorph: none known.
    Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 25 °C. Not growing at 35 °C. Colonies grown on PDA and SNA in darkness sterile within 96 h; conidia forming on PDA, CMD and SNA at 20–25 °C within 10 d when grown under light. On PDA and CMD mononematous conidiophores obscure, conidia held in pale green drops of watery liquid. Conidiophores on CMD mononematous and produced in pustules; mononematous conidiophores 75–85 µm long, 3.5–5.5 µm wide at the base, branching verticillium- or gliocladium-like with convergent phialides terminating each branch. Phialides tapering uniformly from base to tip. Conidia from mononematous conidiophores broadly ellipsoidal, (3.5–)3.7–4.2(–4.5) x (2.5–)2.7(–3.0) µm. On SNA conspicuous pustules scattered throughout the colony; pustules hemispherical, 1–2 mm diam, dense, without projecting sterile hairs, slowly producing greyish green conidia (27D5). Conidiophores entirely integrated into pustules, not projecting from pustules; conidiophores near the surface of the pustules with a barely discernable, short main axis producing short branches at 90° and solitary phialides; branches typically unicellular, terminating in 3–5 phialides in a whorl; phialides often arising directly, separated by short internodes and then forming a dense "pseudowhorl". Phialides more or less cylindrical or slightly swollen in the middle, straight or slightly hooked. Conidia ellipsoidal, smooth. Mononematous conidiophores similar to those found on CMD forming on SNA. Chlamydospores not observed on CMD.

    Holotype: Ecuador, Pichincha, vic. Vicente Maldonado, Arasha Resort forest, km 120, Rio Caoni, isolated from stem of Theobroma gileri, 3 Nov. 2001, H.C. Evans DIS 320C (BPI 870965, a dry culture; ex-type culture DIS 320c = IMI 393638 = CBS 119055).

    Notes: Trichoderma caribbaeum var. aequatoriale was originally isolated as an endophyte from the trunk of a Theobroma gileri tree. When inoculated onto leaves of Th. cacao, it could be re-isolated from the lower parts of the plant. The variety is unusual in growing faster at 20 °C than at 30 °C.

  4. Trichoderma dingleyae Samuels & Dodd, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501036. Figs 10, 134–142.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea dingleyae Samuels & Dodd, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501037. Figs 30–31, 143–152.

    Etymology: Named in honour of Joan M. Dingley in recognition of her pioneering studies of hypocrealean fungi, especially those found in New Zealand.
    Stromata aurantio-brunnea, H. rufae (Fr.) Fr. similia. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (2.0–)3.0–4.2 (–5.0) x (1.7–)2.5–4.0(–4.5) µm, pars proxima (2.5–)3.0–4.7 (–6.5) x 2.5–3.5(–4.2) µm. Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis, conidia viridia, ellipsoidea vel late ellipsoidea, (3.2–)3.7–4.5(–6.2) x (2.5–)3.0–3.5(–3.7) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (1.1–)1.2–1.6 (–2.1). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 24–29 mm.
    Holotypus H. dingleyae PDD 83838; holotypus anamorphosis T. dingleyae cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens PDD 83838.
    Stromata at first pulvinate, tan with a white margin, velutinous, solitary or crowded; becoming discoidal, darker (ca. 6–7C–D8: brownish orange, burnt sienna), with or without a velutinous surface, not reacting to KOH, circular to irregular in outline, 1–2 mm diam, broadly attached or with margins slightly free; surface plane to wrinked; perithecial elevations not evident, ostiolar openings barely visible as slightly darker areolae or not visible. Cells of stroma surface in face view pseudoparenchymatous, with unevenly pigmented walls, (2.5–)3.2–6.0(–8.5) µm diam. Surface region of stroma 15–30 µm thick, composed of pseudoparenchymatous cells, (2–)3–6(–11) x (1.5–) 2.7–3.7(–8.0) µm, walls slightly thickened. Hyphal hairs arising from stroma surface, 5–10(–20) µm long, 2–3 µm wide, septate, unbranched, thin-walled. Tissue immediately below the stroma surface compact, of textura epidermoidea or pseudoparenchyma but hyphal below. Tissue below the perithecia pseudoparenchymatous, lacking hyphal elements, cells 3–10(–14) µm diam, thin-walled. Perithecia elliptical in section, 175–280(–350) µm high, (80–)120–200(–215) µm diam; ostiolar canal (50–)60–90(–100) µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from the stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong or slightly ellipsoidal.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 20–25 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in darkness or in light for 96 h with abundant white aerial mycelium, sterile. No pigment diffusing through the agar; no distinctive odour. Colonies grown on CMD at 20 °C under light producing scant aerial mycelium; conidia forming in scattered, hemispherical, grey-green pustules 0.5–1.0 mm diam. Pustules very compact; long, terminally fertile conidiophores barely protruding beyond the surface; many small, easily detached pustules forming in the aerial mycelium. Conidiophores within the pustules irregularly branched, typically without a discernable main axis; phialides often held in dense divergent clusters, often arising from swollen nodes. Protruding conidiophores with a long stipe and terminating in 2–4 phialides in a single verticil. Phialides formed within pustules cylindrical to broadly flask-shaped, straight or slightly hooked; those forming at the tips of long conidiophores often narrowly cylindrical or tapering uniformly from base to tip, or slightly swollen in the middle. Conidia ellipsoidal to broadly ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores few, terminal, subglobose, (3.2–)4.0–6.7(–8.7) µm diam.

    Habitat: Bark and wood of Nothofagus spp.

    Known distribution: New Zealand.

    Holotype: New Zealand, South Westland, Haast River, Pleasant Flat, 44°07' S, 169°23' E, on wood of Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides, 10 May 2002, J.A. Cooper, comm. S.R. Pennycook (PDD 83837, isotype BPI 842438, ex-type culture G.J.S. 02-50 = ICMP 16285 = CBS 119056).

    Additional specimens examined: New Zealand, Westland, Lower Buller Gorge, road to Berlins Bluff, under Nothofagus and Dacrydium, 41°53' S, 171°50' E, on an ascomycete on Nothofagus sp., 6 Sep. 1999, G.J.S. & S. Dodd 8706 (PDD 83834, culture G.J.S. 99-105 = ICMP 16283 = CBS 119053); Paparoa National Park, vic. Punakaikai, end of Bullock Creek Rd., S on Inland Pack Track, 42°06' S, 171°24' E, elev. 75–100 m, under Nothofagus and mixed podocarp secondary forest, on bark and decorticated wood of Nothofagus sp., 1 Sep. 1999, G.J.S. & S. Dodd 8659 (PDD 83841, culture G.J.S. 99-203 = ICMP 16284 = CBS 119235).
    Notes: Trichoderma dingleyae and T. dorotheae were found in the same secondary forest in New Zealand. Trichoderma dingleyae has slightly broader conidia than T. dorotheae. The growth rate of T. dingleyae is much slower than that of T. dorotheae; the difference is especially strong at 30 °C after 72 h on PDA or SNA.

  5. Trichoderma dorotheae Samuels & Dodd, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501038. Figs 11, 153–164.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea dorotheae Samuels & Dodd, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501039. Figs 32–33, 165–173.

    Etymology: Named in honour of Dorothy Gale, who went from Kansas to the Land of Oz with her dog Toto (Frank Baum, "Wizard of Oz").
    Stromata flavobrunnea aetate provecta. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum 3.0–4.5(–5.2) x (2.2–)2.7–3.7(–5.2) µm; pars proxima (3.5–)3.7–5.0(–6.5) x 2.5–3.5(–4.2) µm. Conidiophora irregulariter ramosa, internodia inter ramos saepe curta. Conidia viridia, late ellipsoidea, (3.0–)3.5–4.2(–5.0) x (2.5–)2.7–3.2(–3.7) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (1.1–)1.2–1.4 (–1.6). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 39–41 mm.
    Holotypus H. dorotheae PDD 83839; holotypus anamorphosis T. dorotheae cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens PDD 83839.
    Stromata at first pinkish white (ca. 8A2) with white margin, flat and pulvinate, becoming brownish yellow, light brown, yellowish brown (5B–E8) and more raised and discoidal to tuberculate, not reacting to KOH, scattered, circular to irregular in outline, 0.5–1.5 mm diam, broadly attached or with margins slightly free, plane, appearing smooth; perithecial elevations not evident; ostiolar openings barely visible as slightly darker aerolae or not visible. Cells of stroma surface in face view more or less pseudoparenchymatous with unevenly pigmented walls, 7–10 µm diam. Surface region of stroma ca. 20 µm thick, composed of pigmented, pseudoparenchymatous cells, (1.7–)2.5–4.5(–7.0) x (1.5–)2.0–3.5(–5.2) µm, walls slightly thickened. Hyphal hairs arising from stroma surface, 5–10(–20) µm long, 2–3 µm wide, septate, unbranched, thin-walled. Tissue below the stroma surface compact, of textura epidermoidea or pseudoparenchyma but hyphal below. Tissue below the perithecia pseudoparenchymatous, lacking hyphal elements, cells 5–15(–25) µm diam. Perithecia 169–250 µm high, 65–160 µm wide, ostiolar canal 45–95 µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from the surrounding stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong or slightly ellipsoidal.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 25 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in darkness or in light forming conidia only after 96 h or remaining sterile. Colonies grown on CMD at 20 and 25 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk, conidia forming in 1–3 mm diam pustules formed around the periphery of the colony or pustules not evident and conidiophores arising in the aerial mycelium. Often long, entirely fertile conidiophores visible in the pustules. Conidiophores lacking a discernable main axis and branches not obviously paired or sometimes arising in whorls of 3, or unilaterally branched; conidiophores arising from pustules often fasciculate (Figs 155, 156), internodes between the branches often short, branches increasing in length with distance from the tip of the main axis, rebranching to form branches, which terminate in slightly divergent whorls of 3–4 phialides. Phialides lageniform, only slightly swollen in the middle. With age of culture, phialides tending to proliferate percurrently to form new phialides, the newly formed phialide often abruptly swollen in the middle (Fig. 158). After storage, cultures sterile or forming dense, subglobose, grey-green pustules on the surface of the agar and in the aerial mycelium. Conidia broadly ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores few, terminal, 2.7–5.7(–8.5) µm diam.

    Habitat: On bark and wood of Nothofagus and Eucalyptus species.

    Known distribution: New Zealand, Australia (Victoria).

    Holotype: New Zealand, Westland, Paparoa National Park, vic. Punakaikai, end of Bullock Creek Rd., S on Inland Pack Track, 42°06' S, 171°24' E, elev. 75–100 m, in Nothofagus and mixed podocarp forest, on decorticated wood of Nothofagus sp., 1 Sep. 1999, G.J.S. & S. Dodd 8657 (PDD 83839; ex-type culture G.J.S. 99-202 = CBS 119089 = ICMP 16288).

    Additional specimens examined: Australia. Victoria, Otway Ranges, Otway State Forest, Aire Valley, Hopetoun Falls, elev. 300 m, on bark of Eucalyptus sp., 27 Aug. 1999, G.J.S. 8651 (BPI 746863, culture G.J.S. 99-194 = CBS 119071 = ICMP 16287). New Zealand. Westland, Kahurangi National Park, N of Karamea, between Nenya Creek and Vilya Creek, ca. 41°12' S, 172°12' E, elev. 150 m in Nothofagus fusca and N. menziesii forest, on rotting bark of Nothofagus sp., 5 Sep. 1999, G.J.S. & S. Dodd 8689 (PDD 83842, BPI 746628, culture G.J.S. 99-97 = CBS 119057 = ICMP 16286).

    Notes: Trichoderma dorotheae is distinguished from the sympatric T. dingleyae by its faster growth rate and slightly larger conidia. The three teleomorph collections that are linked to this species are in poor condition, mainly overmature.

  6. Trichoderma intricatum Samuels & Dodd, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501040. Figs 12–13, 174–185.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea intricata Samuels et Dodd, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501041. Figs 34–35, 186–195.

    Etymology: Refers to the intricately arranged conidiophores in the conidial pustules.
    Stromata aurantio-brunnea aetate provecta. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (2.5–)3.0–3.7(–4.0) x (2.2–) 2.7–3.5(–3.7) µm; pars proxima (2.5–)2.5–4.2(–4.5) x (2.2–)2.5–3.0(–3.2) µm. Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis, conidia late ellipsoidea vel ovoidea, (3.0–)3.5–4.0(–4.5) x (2.5–)2.7–3.2(–3.5) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (0.9–)1.1–1.3(–1.5). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 40–50 mm.
    Holotypus H. intricata BPI 745751; holotypus anamorphosis T. intricatum cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 745751B.
    Stromata at first semi-effused, brownish orange to light brown (ca. 6C–D8) with a white margin, velvety, becoming tuberculate to discoidal, circular to irregular in outline, 0.5–10 mm diam, greyish orange to brownish orange (ca. 5B–D6–7), with or without a slightly scaly or velvety surface, not reacting to KOH, broadly attached with margins slightly free; surface plane; perithecial elevations not evident; ostiolar openings not visible, barely visible as slightly darker points. Cells of stroma surface in face view pseudoparenchymatous, with unevenly pigmented walls, (1.5–)2.2–5.5(–9.5) x (1.2–) 1.7–3.0(–4.0) µm, walls slightly thickened. Pigmented surface region of stroma 10–20 µm thick, composed of pseudoparenchymatous cells, (1.5–)2.0–4.0(–6.5) x (1.2–)1.7–2.7(–4.0) µm, walls slightly thickened. Hyphal hairs arising from stroma surface, 6.5–10 µm long, 3–4 µm wide, septate, unbranched, thin-walled. Tissue below the stroma surface compact, of textura epidermoidea but hyphal below. Tissue below the perithecia pseudoparenchymatous but with many long hyphal elements, cells (2–)4–9(–13) x (2.5–) 3.0–5.0(–6.5) µm, thin-walled. Perithecia elliptical in section, (150–)160–270(–360) µm high, 65–220(–350) µm wide; ostiolar canal 50–100 µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from the stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong or slightly ellipsoidal.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 30 °C; less than 5 mm at 35 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in darkness or under light at 25 °C producing conidia within 8 h; within 96 h conidia abundant in the aerial mycelium in marked concentric rings; on SNA conidia beginning to form in small pustules in a ring around the original inoculum. No diffusing pigment or distinctive odour detected on any medium. Colonies on CMD filling the Petri plate within 1 wk at 20 °C; conidiophores forming around the margin of the colony in a more or less continuous, ca. 1 cm broad band of confluent, poorly-defined, cottony pustules, within which entirely fertile conidiophores can be seen (Fig. 176); conidia dark green (27F8). On SNA conidia forming in more or less discrete, hemispherical pustules. Pustules lacking projecting terminally fertile conidiophores or sterile hairs. Conidiophores with a discernable main axis, more or less symmetrical, often with 2 branches arising on either side of a single node, branches arising at or near 90° with respect to the main axis, progressively longer with distance from the tip, rebranching to form unicellular 2° branches. Phialides arising directly from the main axis, branches and terminating the 2° branches, in whorls of 3–5; dense whorls at the tips of branches not noted; phialides lageniform and somewhat swollen in the middle to cylindrical, straight, rarely slightly hooked or sinuous; supporting cell not significantly different in width from the widest part of the phialide. Conidia broadly ellipsoidal to ovoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores not observed.

    Habitat: Decorticated wood inhabited by other ascomycetous fungi including Rosellinia sp.

    Known distribution: Puerto Rico, Thailand.

    Holotype: Thailand. Saraburi Prov., Khao Yai Natl. Park, Haew Narok, elev. 350 m, bark of very rotten tree, 11 Aug. 1997, G.J.S. & P. Chaverri 8422 (teleomorph: BPI 745751; holotype of T. intricatum BPI 745751B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 97-88 = CBS 119059).

    Additional specimen examined: Puerto Rico, Caribbean Natl. Forest, Luquillo Mts., El Verde Research Area, on decorticated wood, 9 Feb. 1996, G.J.S. & H.-J. Schroers 8038 (BPI 744458, culture G.J.S. 96-13 = CBS 986.97).
    Notes: Despite the fact that the two known collections of T. intricatum were found in widely separated geographic locations, they were joined together with high bootstrap support in analyses of tef, act and cal. The apparent geographic separation may account for the small differences between the two collections, viz. conidia of G.J.S. 97-88 [3.7 ± 0.2 (3.5–4.5) x 2.5 ± 0.2 (2.5–3.5) µm] are statistically longer than those of G.J.S. 96-13 [3.5 ± 0.3 (3.0–4.0) x 3.1 ± 0.3 (2.5–3.5) µm]; the distal and proximal part-ascospores of G.J.S. 96-13 [distal: 3.5 ± 0.3 (3.0–4.0) x 3.5 ± 0.2 (3.0–3.7) µm; proximal: 3.2 ± 0.3 (3.2–4.5) x 2.7 ± 0.2 (2.5–3.2) µm] are statistically longer than those of G.J.S. 97-88 [distal: 2.7 ± 0.2 (2.5–3.5) x 2.2 ± 0.3 (2.2–3.5); proximal: 2.5 ± 3.5 (2.5–3.7) x 2.2 ± 0.2 (2.7–3.2) µm] and the distal part-ascospores of G.J.S. 96-13 are wider than those of 97-88. Finally, although the two collections have virtually identical growth curves on PDA, 97-88 grows considerably more slowly on SNA, reaching a colony radius of only 30 mm on PDA after 72 h as opposed to ca. 50 mm for 96-13. In the absence of addional collections, we do not recognize these differences in our taxonomy.

    Trichoderma intricatum is sympatric with T. koningiopsis, T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum and T. stilbohypoxyli in Puerto Rico. The species can be distinguished with some difficulty. Trichoderma koningiopsis and T. caribbaeum have a faster growth rate on PDA than either T. intricatum or T. stilbohypoxyli, the radius of T. koningiopsis reaching 70 mm at 30 °C and that of T. intricatum 50–60 mm at 30 °C, whereas the colony radii of T. intricatum and T. stilbohypoxyli reach a maximum of only ca. 50 mm. Conidia form slowly, after 96 h at 25°C, in PDA and SNA cultures of T. caribbaeum, but conidia form in abundance within 96 h on these media in the other species. The distal and proximal part-ascospores of T. intricatum (Table 3) are shorter than those of either T. stilbohypoxyli [distal: (3.2–)3.7–4.2(–4.7) µm, 95 % CI = 3.9–4.0 µm; proximal: (3.2–)4.2–5.2(–5.7) µm, 95 % CI = 4.6–4.8 µm] or T. koningiopsis (Table 3). Conidia of T. intricatum are wider and the L/W of conidia is smaller than in T. caribbaeum, T. koningiopsis and T. stilbohypoxyli (1.3–1.5). PDA cultures of T. stilbohypoxyli typically produce a diffusing yellow pigment.

  7. Trichoderma koningii Oudem. in Oudemans & Koning, Arch. Néerl. Sci. Exactes Nat., Sér. 2, 7: 291. 1902. Figs 14, 196–207.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea koningii Lieckfeldt, Samuels & W. Gams, Canad. J. Bot. 76: 1519. 1998. MycoBank MB446367. Figs 36–38.
    See Lieckfeldt et al. (1998) for descriptions and illustrations of stromata. Measurements of the teleomorph are given in Table 3.
    Characters of cultures: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA 25–30 °C; on SNA significantly faster at 25 °C than at 30 °C. Colonies grown on PDA at 25 °C for 96 h under light tending to produce abundant white mycelium; conidial production beginning in the centre of the colony in dense green patches; production spreading outward in broad, faint concentric rings. First green conidia appearing at ca. 72 h in PDA cultures grown at 25 or 30 °C in darkness.

    Characters of anamorph: Colonies grown on CMD filling the Petri plate within one wk; no diffusing pigment, no distinctive odour. Conidia forming in a narrow band around the colony margin in confluent, compact to cottony pustules up to 1 mm diam and in the sparingly produced aerial mycelium, sometimes with only a slight tendency to form pustules; individual conidiophores often visible within the pustule (Fig. 197). Conidiophores with a discernable main axis, more or less symmetrical, often with 2 branches arising on either side of a single node, branches arising at or near 90° with respect to the main axis, progressively longer with distance from the tip, rebranching to form unicellular branches. Phialides arising directly from the main axis, the and branches, in whorls of 3 or 4, often dense whorls at the tips of branches and in intercalary positions, lageniform, somewhat swollen in the middle, straight; phialides often densely clustered in "pseudowhorls" (Figs 201, 202). Conidia oblong, smooth, green. Chlamydospores sparingly produced, subglobose, (6.5–)7.5–11.5(–14.5) µm, terminal on hyphae.

    Habitat: Isolated from soil, perithecia forming on bark.

    Known distribution: U.S.A., Canada, Europe

    Neotype of Trichoderma koningii: The Netherlands. Spanderswoud near Bussum, under Pinus sylvestris, 1997, W. Gams (BPI 744883; ex-neotype culture CBS 457.96 = IMI 374798 = G.J.S. 96-117).
    Holotype of Hypocrea koningii: U.S.A., Maryland, Garrett County, approx. 10 mi SSE of Grantsville, near Bittinger, western Maryland 4-H, High Bog, on decorticated wood, 23 Sep. 1989, G.J.S. (89-122), C.T. Rogerson, W.R. Buck & R.C. Harris (BPI 745885, ex-type culture G.J.S. 89-122 = IMI 378801 = CBS 989.97).

    Additional specimens and cultures examined: Canada, isolated from mushroom compost, C. Fordyce D8129-6 (conidial culture G.J.S. 92-18 = CBS 987.97). Hungary, locality not known, conidial isolate from soil (ATCC 64262; dry culture = BPI 870956). The Netherlands, collecting data as the neotype of T. koningii, conidial isolates (CBS 458.96, under Pseudotsuga menziesii; CBS 459.96, under Larix Leptolepsis; CBS 460.96, under Fagus sylvatica); Baarn, Groeneveld, on decaying angiosperm wood, Oct. 1970, W. Gams (ascospore culture CBS 979.70, as H. muroiana, specimen not located). U.S.A., ?Maryland, on bark, Nov.–Dec. 2000, G. Arnold 00-155 (BPI 842351, culture G.J.S. 00-168 = CBS 119060, ascospore isolate); Pennsylvania, Westmoreland County, Laurel Summit Picnic Area, on blackened, decorticated wood, 16 Sep. 2000, K. Põldmaa 00-143 (BPI 842346; culture G.J.S. 00-156 = CBS 119061, ascospore isolate); Wisconsin, Sand County, Aldo Leopold Reserve, on burned wood, 23 June 1990, G.J.S. (conidial culture 90-18 = CBS 988.97).

  8. . Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suarez & H.C. Evans, sp. nov. MycoBank MB487454. Figs 15–16, 208–216.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea koningiopsis Samuels, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501042. Figs 39–40, 217–225.

    Etymology: "Koningiopsis" in reference to the similarity to T. koningii Oudem.
    Stromata brunnea, ostiola plerumque occulta. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (2.7–)3.0-3.5 (–4.5) x (2.0–) 2.5–3.5 (–4.0) µm; pars proxima (3.0–)3.7–4.7 (–6.0) x (1.7–)2.2–3.0 (–3.5) µm. Conidiophora regulariter ramosa, interdum longa internodia inter ramos apicem versus praebentia. Conidia ellipsoidea, (3.0–)3.5–4.5 (–6.2) x (2.0–)2.2–3.0 (–3.5) µm; ratio longitudinis: latitudinis (1.0–)1.3–1.8 (–2.5). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate (45–)51–63(–67) mm.
    Holotypus H. koningiopsis: BPI 802571; holotypus anamorphosis T. koningiopsis cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 802571B.
    Stromata brown (6E8), not reacting to KOH, scattered, nearly circular in outline, 1.5–2.5 mm diam, pulvinate, broadly attached, margins sometimes free, convex to plane, appearing smooth, perithecial elevations not evident or appearing as low tubercules, ostiolar openings barely visible as slightly dark areolae. Hyphal hairs arising from stroma surface, 8–10 µm long, septate, 2–3 µm wide, absent from mature stromata. Cells of the stroma surface in face view pseudoparenchymatous, 10–20 x 5–15 µm, walls slightly thickened, unevenly pigmented. Surface region of stroma ca. 20 µm thick, composed of pigmented, compact pseudoparenchymatous cells 5–12 x 3–10 µm, walls slightly thickened. Tissue below the stroma surface of loosely disposed, thin-walled hyphae. Tissue below the perithecia vertically oriented, long-celled pseudoparenchyma; cells 5–15 x 5–10 µm, with some short hyphal elements. Perithecia subglobose, (130–)150–250(–275) µm high, (60–)90–150 µm wide; ostiolar canal 50–100 µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from cells of the surrounding stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex slightly thickened, a pore not visible; ascospores uniseriate. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part globose to subglobose; proximal part oblong to wedge-shaped or slightly ellipsoidal.

    Characteristics of cultures: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA and SNA 30 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in darkness or in light for 96 h often forming conidia after 48 h at 25 and 30 °C in a dense lawn or the centre remaining sterile; conidia also forming in 2 or 3 concentric rings; conidia abundant in light-grown colonies, less abundant and sometimes lacking from colonies grown in darkness. Colonies grown on SNA in darkness or in light for 96 h producing abundant aerial mycelium; conidia tending to be uniformly dispersed in the aerial mycelium in broad concentric rings, sometimes forming cottony pustules. Conidial masses 25E–F8 (deep green to dark green), seldom with yellow coloration (26–27E–F). No pigment diffusing through the agar; no distinctive odour (rarely a faint coconut odour detected). Colonies grown on CMD at 20 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk, conidial production nearly continuous with a tendency to form highly compact to cottony, 1–2 mm diam pustules; conidial production sometimes restricted to the margin of the colony. Often long, entirely fertile branches visible in the pustules (Fig. 210). Conidiophores comprising a recognizable main axis, ca. 3 µm wide; fertile branches arising along the length of the main axis, more or less paired with longer or shorter internodes; terminal part of conidiophore often sparingly branched and with long internodes between branches (Figs 212–213); branches formed from the interior of pustules, sometimes pachybasium-like, with short, crowded phialides (Figs 214–215). Branches arising at an angle of slightly less than 90° with respect to the main axis, longer branches near the base and short branches or solitary phialides arising near the tip; branches rebranching or producing phialides directly, branches tending to be paired; all fertile branches terminating in a whorl of phialides. Phialides typically straight, sometimes hooked or sinuous, narrowly lageniform or sometimes conspicuously swollen in the middle (especially when crowded at the interior of a pustule), held in whorls of 2–5, sometimes several phialides arising from the same point and crowded (Fig. 214); intercalary phialides forming but not common (Fig. 215). Conidia ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores abundant to sparse or lacking, terminal to intercalary, globose to subglobose, (n = 168) (3.0–)9–9.5 (–16) µm diam.

    Habitat: Isolated from pods of Theobroma cacao and from trunks of Th. grandiflorum, Th. gileri, Theobroma sp. ("cacao de monte"), mushroom compost, soil, twigs and decaying leaves. Teleomorph found on wood, possibly associated with ascomycetes.

    Known distribution: Teleomorph: Cuba, Puerto Rico, U.S.A. (Kentucky). Anamorph: Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, Ecuador, Germany, Ghana, Peru.

    Holotype: Cuba, Sanctu Spiritus, Moyote Mi Ritiro, elev. 700–750 m, 21°52' N, 80°01' W, on branch, 2 July 1993, S.M. Huhndorf 572 (BPI 802571, isotype NY; holotype of T. intricatum BPI 802571B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 93-20 = CBS 119075).

    Additional specimens examined, teleomorph: Puerto Rico, Cordillera Central, Chario Azul, off Rte.184, elev. 550 m, on decorticated wood, G.J.S. 8111, H.-J. Schroers & D.J. Lodge (BPI 744473, culture G.J.S. 96-47 = CBS 991.97). U.S.A., Kentucky, Rowan County, Cave Run Lake, on decorticated wood, 26 Sep. 1995, G.J.S. (BPI 737751, culture G.J.S. 95-175 = CBS 991.97).

    Additional specimens examined, anamorph: Brazil, Rio Xingu, Bella Vista Farm, isolated from trunk of 20 m tall Theobroma grandiflorum, 5 Mar. 2000, H.C. Evans & K. A. Holmes DIS 205f (BPI 870959; culture DIS 205f = IMI 385805 = CBS 119068); vic. Iguasu Falls, in soil in rain forest, 6 Sep. 2004, I. Druzhinina (two cultures: TUB F 1134 = G.J.S. 04-378 = CBS 119073; TUB F 1145 = G.J.S. 04-375); Pará, Belém, EMBRAPA, isolated from stem of 50–60-year-old Theobroma grandiflorum, 29 Feb. 2000, H.C. Evans & K. A. Holmes DIS 172ai (CBS 119067 = IMI 385811); Rio de Janeiro, location and substratum unknown, 27 Oct. 2004, I. Druzhinina (TUB F 824); Sugarloaf Mt., in soil under bamboo, 6 Sep. 2004, I. Druzhinina (two cultures: TUB F 727 = G.J.S. 04-377 = CBS 119074; TUB F 1079 = G.J.S. 04-374); Botanical Garden, in soil, 19 Sep. 2004, I. Druzhinina (two cultures: TUB F 682 and 687); São Paulo, Atlantic Forest, vic. Paranapicaba, ca. 60 km from São Paulo, on leaves of Alchornea triplinervia in stream, 1989–1990, I. Schoenlein-Crusius (G.J.S. 91-6); same location data, isolated from soil (G.J.S. 91-7). Canada, Ontario, Leamington, mushroom farm, isolated from mushroom casing, 18 Aug. 1994, collector unknown (DAOM 222105). Ecuador, Esmeraldas Prov., El Rocio, Guadual, isolated from stem of Theobroma gileri, 5 Nov. 2001, H. C. Evans & R. Reeder DIS 326h (BPI 870961; live culture DIS 326h = IMI 393639 = CBS 119070); Los Rios Prov., Pichilingue, vic. Quevedo, isolated from pods of Theobroma cacao infected with Moniliophthora roreri, 1999, C. Suarez & K. Solis [cultures 1.09 = G.J.S. 01-07; 2.09 = G.J.S. 01-09; 4.09 = G.J.S. 01-10 = CBS 119063; 5.09 = G.J.S. 01-11, 6.09 = G.J.S. 01-12 = CBS 119064 (dry culture BPI 870957)]; Pichincha Prov., Vicente Maldonado, Arasha Resort forest, km 120, Río Caoni, isolated from stem of Th. gileri, 5 Aug. 2000, H.C. Evans & K.A. Holmes DIS 229d (BPI 870960; live culture CBS 119069 = IMI 391590); Vicente Maldonado, Rancho Marionita, km 122, on old, damaged Th. gileri, 14 Apr. 2001, H.C. Evans & K.A. Holmes DIS 339c (CBS 119065 = IMI 391591). Germany, Müncheberg, isolated from arable sandy soil, 1990, H. Nirenberg (BBA 65450). Ghana, Western Region, Wiaswo Distr., Bia National Park, from forest headquarters to Rock Pool, 06°37' N, 03°04' W, elev. 506 m, to 06°36' N, 03°05' W, elev. 300 m, disturbed primary forest, on twig, 22 Oct. 2003, G.J.S. 9417 & H.C. Evans (BPI 872112, live culture G.J.S. 03-160). Peru, Quebrada Payarote, Río Marañon, isolated from stem of 15–20 m tall Theobroma sp. ("cacao de monte"), 3 May 1999, H.C. Evans & D.H. Dejeddour DIS 94c (BPI 870958; live culture CBS 119066 = IMI 391592). U.S.A., Texas, Karnes County, vic. Kennedy, from farm soil, date unknown, C. Howell T.K. 3 (G.J.S. 04-10 = CBS 119063).

    Notes: Trichoderma koningiopsis has been isolated directly from substrata much more often than it has been encountered as its teleomorph. It is a common species in the Americas, especially in tropical regions, but has also been found in soil under coffee in East Africa (Ethiopia, T. Belayneh, pers. comm.) and on a twig in forest in Ghana. In the United States its range overlaps with T. koningii, T. petersenii, and T. rogersonii. Early evidence suggests that it is effective in protecting cacao pods against Moniliophthora roreri in Ecuador (C. Suarez, pers. comm.), cotton from Thielaviopsis basicola (C. Howell, pers. comm.), and maize from Fusarium verticillioides (I. Yates, pers. comm.).

  9. >Trichoderma ovalisporum Samuels & Schroers, Mycol. Prog. 3: 204. 2004. MycoBank MB493497. Figs 17, 226–236.
    Teleomorph: none known.

    Characters of cultures: Optimum temperature on PDA and SNA 25–30 °C. Colonies grown on PDA and SNA in intermittent light forming green conidia on PDA and SNA at 25 and 30 °C after 48 h. PDA mycelium nearly or completely filling the Petri dish with dense, confluent green pustules forming in the centre of the colony and subsequent conidia developing toward the margin; no diffusing pigment or distinctive odour noted. Colonies grown on CMD filling the Petri plate within 4 d at 20–21 °C, conidia forming abundantly around the margin of the colony in cottony, grey-green pustules. Each pustule comprising intertwined, ca. 3.0–4.5 µm wide hyphae; phialides and conidia arising from the terminal 40–200 µm of the hyphae at or near the surface of the pustules. Conidiophores with conspicuous, distinctly linear central axes with relatively short lateral branches. branches tending to be paired and evenly spaced, 10–20 µm apart (more closely spaced toward the tip of the axis), arising at or near 90° with respect to the main axis, producing phialides directly, or branches less frequently producing branches, which form phialides directly. In DIS 172h often up to six phialides or branches arise from enlarged nodes on the main axis (pseudowhorls), sometimes fertile branches clustered at the top of the main axis with a long, sterile part below. Phialides paired or arising in whorls of 2–5 directly from the main axis and and branches; phialides typically arising at 90° with respect to the cell below, flask-shaped and more or less swollen below the tip to (less frequently) cylindrical. Intercalary phialides forming (Figs 233–234). Conidia ovoidal to broadly ellipsoidal or subglobose, green, smooth. Chlamydospores scattered, subglobose, terminal in submerged hyphae, (6–)7–10(–12) x (4.0–)6.2–8.7 (–10.5) µm (n = 30).

    Habitat: Endophytic within woody tissues of Banisteriopsis caapi (Malpighiaceae), Theobroma grandiflorum and Th. speciosum (Malvaceae).

    Known distribution: Amazonian Ecuador (Sucumbios Prov.) and Brazil (Pará state).

    Holotype: Ecuador. Sucumbios Prov., Napo River, Panaco-cha-Río Yanayacu, isolated from the liana Banisteropsis caapi, Mar. 1999, H.C. Evans DIS 70a (BPI 843692, ex-type culture DIS 70a = CBS 113299 = DAOM 232077 = IMI 390990).
    Additional cultures examined (all conidial isolates): Brazil, Pará, Belém, EMBRAPA Research Station, isolated from trunk of 50–60-yr-old Th. grandiflorum, Feb. 2000, H.C. Evans & K.A. Holmes DIS 172h (BPI 843691; cultures DIS 172h = CBS 113300 = DAOM 232078 = IMI 385808); second isolate from the same tree (DIS 172i = IMI 385811); Rio Xingu, Bella Vista Farm, isolated from 20-m-tall Theobroma speciosum, 5 Mar. 2000, H.C. Evans & K.A. Holmes DIS 203c (culture DIS 203c = IMI 385934).

    Notes: This species was originally described and illustrated based on two endophytic isolates, DIS 70a and DIS 172i (Holmes et al. 2004). Since that time, two additional isolates (DIS 172h, DIS 203c) have been identified as this species. The isolates DIS 172h and DIS 172i were isolated from the same tree and are likely to be clones.


  10. Trichoderma petersenii Samuels, Dodd & Schroers, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501043. Figs 18, 237–247.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea petersenii Samuels, Dodd & Schroers, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501044. Figs 41–43, 248–259.

    Etymology: Named to honour Ronald H. Petersen, University of Tennessee, in recognition of his love for, and knowledge of, the Smoky Mountains.
    Stromata rufobrunnea, velutina, ostiola plerumque occulta, H. rufae (Fr.) Fr. similia. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (2.2–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) x (2.0–)3.2–4.2(–5.0) µm; pars proxima (2.7–)3.7–5.0(–6.5) x (2.2–)2.7–3.5(–5.2) µm. Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis. Conidia viridia, laevia, ellipsoidea ad late ellipsoidea, (2.5–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) x (2.2–)2.7–3.0(–3.5) µm; ratio longitudinis: latitudinis (1.0–)1.3–1.5(–1.8). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate (26–)33–45 mm.
    Holotypus H. petersenii: BPI 864092A; holotypus anamorphosis T. petersenii: cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 864092B.
    Stromata scattered to gregarious, at first thin, semi-effused, tan with a lighter-coloured margin, velvety, gradually becoming thicker, pulvinate to discoidal and reddish brown (8E–F8), not reacting to KOH, circular to elliptic in outline, 0.5–1.0(–1.7) mm diam (n = 109), broadly attached or with edges slightly free; plane, appearing velvety or smooth; perithecial elevations not evident; ostiolar openings barely visible as slightly dark areolae. Cells of stroma surface in face view more or less pseudoparenchymatous with unevenly thickened and pigmented walls, 3–7 µm diam. Surface region of the stroma ca. 20 µm thick, composed of pigmented, pseudoparenchymatous cells, (2.0–)3.0–6.5(–11) x (1.5–)2.2–5(–10) µm, walls slightly thickened. Tissue below the stroma surface compact, pseudoparenchyma or hyphal, thin-walled. Tissue below the perithecia pseudoparenchymatous, lacking hyphal elements. Perithecia subglobose, (166–)190–375(–485) µm high, (90–)125–265(–370) µm diam; ostiolar canal (50–)60–100(–150) µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from the surrounding stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong or slightly ellipsoidal.

    Characteristics of cultures: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA 25–30 °C, on SNA 25 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in darkness or in light for 96 h forming conidia in conspicuous concentric rings with a barraging aspect. Conidia typically forming abundantly on SNA in marked concentric rings in the aerial mycelium and/or in pustules. Conidia formed on CMD dark green, 27E–F8. No pigment diffusing through the agar; no distinctive odour. Colonies grown on CMD at 20 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk, conidial production often in one or more concentric rings near the margin, often in minute, confluent or discrete, cottony pustules. Conidiophores often visible in pustules, entirely fertile and "plumose" (Fig. 238). Conidiophores symmetrical, comprising a recognizable main axis, ca. 3 µm wide, fertile branches arising along the length of the main axis, more or less paired, with longer or shorter internodes; lateral branches and phialides on conidiophores formed at the interior of pustules tending to be densely clustered in pseudowhorls (Fig. 245). Branches arising at an angle of slightly less than 90° with respect to the main axis, longer branches near the base and short branches or solitary phialides arising near the tip; branches rebranching or producing phialides directly, branches producing phialides at the tip and often along the length. Phialides typically straight, lageniform, cylindrical or slightly swollen in the middle, held in whorls of 3 or 4, sometimes crowded when formed within a pustule; intercalary phialides not seen. Conidia ellipsoidal to broadly ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores abundant to sparse or lacking, terminal or intercalary, globose to subglobose, (3.5–) 6.5–12(–28) µm diam (n = 109).

    Habitat: Stromata developing on stromata of pyrenomycetous fungi and on decorticated wood; known also from one soil isolation in North Carolina.

    Known distribution: Europe (France), U.S.A. (TN, NC, VA), Costa Rica; common in the eastern U.S.A.

    Holotype: U.S.A., Tennessee, Great Smoky Mts National Park, vic. Cosby, Maddron Bald Track, 35°46' N, 83°16' W, elev. 500 m, 12 July 2004, on decorticated wood (?Tsuga), G.J.S. (BPI 864092A, holotype of T. petersenii is a dry culture BPI 864092B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 04-355 = CBS 119051).

    Additional specimens examined, teleomorph: Costa Rica, Punta Arenas, Sabalito, Coto Brus, elev. 1500 m, on decorticated wood, 30 June 1999, G.J.S. et al. 8488 (BPI 746550, InBio; culture G.J.S. 99-48 = CBS 119090). France, Pyrénées Atlantiques, 64 Oloron, Forêt Bugangue, on decorticated hardwood, G.J.S. et al. (BPI 748317, culture G.J.S. 98-139); same collecting data, on Hypoxylon (BPI 748318, culture G.J.S. 98-140 = CBS 119091). U.S.A., North Carolina, Clay County, Standing Indian Campground off highway 64, on decorticated wood (?Fagus), 15 Oct. 1990, Y. Doi, A.Y. Rossman & G.J.S. (BPI 1109378, TNS; culture G.J.S. 90-86 = CBS 119052); Tennessee, Great Smoky Mts National Park, vic. Cosby, Snake Den Rock Trail, 35°45' N, 83°13' W, elev. 940 m, on Hypoxylon on hardwood, 14 July 2004, G.J.S. (BPI 871100, culture G.J.S. 04-351 = CBS 119050); Virginia, Giles County, Cascades Recreation Site, 4 mi N of Pembroke, Little Stony Creek, 37°02' N, 80°35' W, elev. 840 m, on Diatrype sp., 18 Sep. 1991, G.J.S. et al. (BPI 1112869, culture G.J.S. 91-99).

    Notes: With the exception of the soil isolate DAOM 165782 (North Carolina), we only know T. petersenii from ascospore isolations. It is common in the eastern United States together with T. rogersonii, T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Trichoderma petersenii is characterized by a moderate growth rate, PDA colonies that are distinctive because of the conspicuous concentric rings and abundant conidia (Fig. 18), and stromata that are darker in colour, tending to be red-brown, than stromata of the other species (Figs 41–43).

  11. Trichoderma rogersonii Samuels, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501045. Figs 19, 260–268.
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea rogersonii Samuels, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501046. Figs 44–46, 269–280.

    Etymology: Named in honour of Clark T. Rogerson who introduced a younger generation of mycologists to the Great Smoky Mts. National Park.
    Stromata aurantio-brunnea ad rufo-brunnea, velutina, ostiola plerumque occulta, H. rufa (Fr.) Fr. similia. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (3.0–)3.5–4.5(–5.2) x (2.5–) 3.2–4.0(–5.0) µm, pars proxima (3–)4–5(–6) x (2.0–)2.7–3.5 (–4.0) µm. Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis. Conidia viridia, laevia, ellipsoidea, (2.7–)3.5–4.5(–5.5) x (2.2–)2.5–3.2(–4.2) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (0.8–)1.3–1.7(–2.2). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate (38–)40–48 (–50) mm.
    Holotypus H. rogersonii: BPI 870964A; holotypus anamorphosis T. rogersonii: cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 870964.
    Stromata scattered to gregarious, at first thin, semi-effused, tan with a lighter-coloured margin, velvety, gradually becoming thicker, pulvinate to discoidal and reddish brown (8D–F8), not reacting to KOH, circular to elliptic in outline when mature, (0.5–)0.7–2.0(–4.0) mm diam (n = 58), broadly attached or with edges slightly free, plane, appearing velvety or smooth, perithecial elevations not evident, ostiolar openings not visible or barely visible as slightly dark areolae. Cells of stroma surface in face view more or less pseudoparenchymatous with unevenly thickened and pigmented walls or tending to be hyphal, 5–7 µm diam; hairs to 15 µm long, 3–4 µm wide, 1–3-septate, arising directly from cells of the stroma surface. Surface region of the stroma 20–25 µm thick, composed of pigmented, pseudoparenchymatous cells, (1.5–)2–4(–6) x (1.5–) 2–3(–4) µm, walls slightly thickened. Tissue below the stroma surface hyphal; cells ca. 5 µm wide. Perithecia elliptic to subglobose in section, (150–)200–260(–350) µm high, (55–)120–180(–215) µm diam; ostiolar canal (40–)55–75(–100) µm long; perithecial apex around the ostiolar opening not anatomically distinct from the surrounding stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong or slightly ellipsoidal. Characters of cultures: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA 25–30 °C, on SNA 25 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in intermittent light forming conidia within 48 h at 25 °C; after 96 h in light conidial production most abundant in a central disk with 1 or 2 widely spaced concentric rings beginning to form. Conidia on CMD deep green (26–27D–F8). No pigment diffusing through the agar; no distinctive odour.
    Colonies grown on CMD at 20–25 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk, conidia forming abundantly behind the colony margin in 1–2 concentric rings of confluent, minute cottony pustules or conidial production continuous; individual conidiophores visible within the pustules, completely fertile to the tip (Fig. 261). Conidiophores symmetrical, comprising a recognizable main axis, ca. 3 µm wide, fertile branches arising along the length of the main axis, often paired, with longer or shorter internodes. Branches arising at an angle of slightly less than 90° with respect to the main axis, longer branches near the base and short branches or solitary phialides arising near the tip; 1° branches rebranching or producing phialides directly, branches producing phialides at the tip and often along the length; conidiophores produced at the interior of pustules becoming much-branched with short internodes between the branches (Fig. 266). Phialides typically straight, lageniform, cylindrical or slightly swollen in the middle, held in whorls of 3 or 4, sometimes crowded; intercalary phialides observed. Conidia narrowly ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores typically not produced but abundant in some collections, terminal on hyphae and forming within hyphal cells, subglobose when terminal, (7–)9–15(–26) µm diam.

    Habitat: Bark of hardwood trees.

    Known distribution: U.S.A. (MD, MO, NC, NJ, TN), Europe (Austria).

    Holotype: U.S.A., Tennessee, Great Smoky Mts. National Park, vic. Cosby, Albright Trail, on decorticated wood, July 2005, B.E. Overton 04-04 (BPI 870964A, [GSMNP 77359]; holotype of anamorph BPI 870964B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 04-158 = CBS 119233).

    Additional specimens examined: Austria, Lower Austria, Waldviertel, elev. 420–500 m, virgin forest at Dobra Kamp, on Fagus sylvatica, fallen log, 10 Oct. 1995, H. Voglmayr (951004/2) (BPI 737800; culture G.J.S. 95-217 = CBS 119085). U.S.A., Maryland, Prince George County; Greenbelt, on bark, 11 Oct. 1992, S.A. Rehner (BPI 802859; culture G.J.S. 92-116 = CBS 119083); Missouri, Mingo Wilderness Area, Lake Wappen Wilderness Area, on decorticated wood, 18 Sep. 1994, G.J.S. (BPI 737858, culture G.J.S. 94-115 = CBS 119081); New Jersey, Cumberland County, S. of Newfield, ca. 1 mi off Rte 40, elev. 250 m, on decorticated hardwood, 15 Aug. 1998, G.J.S., H. C. Chamberlain & B.E. Overton (BPI 748406; culture G.J.S. 98-77); second collection, on decorticated wood (BPI 748404; culture G.J.S. 98-75), third collection (BPI 748411; culture G.J.S. 98-82 = CBS 119084); North Carolina, Macon County, Ammons Branch Campground, off Bull Pen Rd., 35°01' N, 83°08' W, elev. 3000 ft, on well-rotted wood of Quercus sp., 14 Oct. 1990, Y. Doi (50), A.Y. Rossman & G.J.S. (BPI 1107174, TNS; culture G.J.S. 90-108); Macon County, Blue Valley off Clear Creek Rd., along Overflow Creek, 35°03' N, 83°15' W, on Diaporthales on Betula sp., 16 Oct. 1995, G.J.S., A. Y. Rossman & Y. Doi (95) (BPI 1109384, TNS, culture G.J.S. 90-93); second collection, on bark, 14 Oct. 1990, Y. Doi, A.Y. Rossman & G.J.S. (BPI 1109371; culture G.J.S. 90-79); third collection, on decorticated wood of Quercus sp., 16 Oct. 1990, Y. Doi (35) et al. (BPI 1107185, TNS; culture G.J.S. 90-125 = CBS 119082); Macon County, Ellicott Rock Trail, off Bull Pen Rd., 31°01' N, 83°08' W, elev. 3000 ft., on decorticated log, 14 Oct. 1990, Y. Doi (4) et al. (BPI 1109370, TNS; culture G.J.S. 90-78 = CBS 985.97); Tennessee, Great Smoky Mts. National Park, vic. Cosby, Albright Trail, on decorticated wood, July 2005, B.E. Overton 04-05 (BPI 864093, GSMNP 77395; culture G.J.S. 04-157).

    Notes: The geographic range of T. rogersonii overlaps with that of T. petersenii, T. koningii and, to a lesser extent, T. koningiopsis. Both T. rogersonii and T. petersenii are common in forests of the eastern United States. Despite their phylogenetic differences, very few phenotypic characters separate them. See notes with T. petersenii.

  12. Trichoderma stilbohypoxyli Samuels & Schroers, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501047. Figs 21–22, 281–289. Teleomorph: Hypocrea stilbohypoxyli Samuels & B.-S. Lu, Sydowia 55: 265 (2003). MycoBank MB488313Figs 47, 48.
    Anamorphosis T. koningii Oudem. similis. Conidia viridia, laevia, ellipsoidea, (2.6–3.2–4.2(–5.0) x (2.0–)2.5–3.2(–3.5) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (1.0–)1.2–1.6(–1.9). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 36–41 mm. Anamorphosis Hypocreae stilbohypoxyli Samuels & B.-S. Lu. Holotypus: BPI 744463B, cultus in agaro siccus.
    Stromata mostly solitary, sometimes gregarious, occasionally in pairs, forming on ascomata of host fungi and adjacent plant tissue, semi-effused, irregular in outline and covering extensive areas of plant tissue, sometimes slightly constricted at the margin, (0.2–)0.5–0.9(–1.5) x 0.2–0.7(–1.3) mm, plane to conspicuously tuberculate due to perithecial apices, ca. 5C–D8 or more reddish, not changing colour in 3 % KOH; margin light tan to white; young surface of stroma velvety due to short ends of projecting hyphae; velvety aspect diminishing with age. Ostiolar openings at most barely visible as darker dots. Cells of the stroma in face view elongate, angular or irregular in outline, (4.0–)5.5–7.5 (–10) x (3.0–)4.0–5.5(–7.5) µm, reddish brown, cell-walls 0.5-1.0 µm thick (n = 10); stromatal surface in vertical section 30–60(–88) µm thick (n = 5), brown, KOH, cells compressed, angular or sometimes rounded, (2.4–)3.5–5.5(–10) x (2.0–)2.5–4.0(–6.5) µm, cell-walls 0.5–1.0 µm thick (n = 10). Hyphal hairs arising from the stroma surface conspicuous, scattered, ca. 10 µm long, 3 µm wide at the base, hyaline to light brown. Cells immediately below the stroma surface hyphal, thin-walled, hyaline, not changing colour in 3 % KOH. Tissue below the perithecia of more or less compact intertwined hyphae, less frequently pseudoparenchymatous, cells (5–)7–10(–15) x (3.5–)4.5–7(–9) µm, thin-walled, hyaline, not changing colour in 3 % KOH. Perithecia immersed in stroma, closely spaced, mostly globose to subglobose, laterally compressed, pyriform to clavate when densely disposed, (216–)250–320(–340) µm high (n = 11), 150–200(–220) µm wide (n = 11), ostiolar canal (46–)65–95(–103) µm long (n = 11), cells of the perithecial wall brown or reddish brown to hyaline; ostiolar region not sharply delimited from the surrouding tissue of the stroma surface. Asci cylindrical, with a thickened tip and a pore. Ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose. Part-ascospores dimorphic; distal part globose to subglobose or conical, proximal part subglobose or elongate to wedge-shaped, tending to be more elongate toward the base of the ascus.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum for growth on PDA and SNA 30 °C. Colonies grown on PDA and SNA at 25 °C and 30 °C for 72 h reaching a radius of 20–25 mm. After 1 wk on PDA at 25 °C under light or in darkness typically forming a lawn of conidia in up to three broad concentric rings of green to yellow-green conidia, usually a diffusing yellow pigment visible in colony reverse. On SNA conidia forming in conspicuous narrow concentric rings separated by wider bands of less conidial production. On CMD at 25 °C after 4 d under light, aerial mycelium scant, conidial pustules minute, at first scattered discrete and then more abundant and confluent toward the margin of the colony; at first light green toward the centre and white-grey to white near the margin, becoming uniformly green within 4 d. No odour or pigment noted. Conidiophores comprising a more or less distinct central axis; phialides and/or fertile branches arising along the entire length. branches arising at 90° with respect to the main axis, paired or solitary, progressively longer and more profusely branched with distance from the tip, producing phialides directly or producing branches, which mostly arise at 90° with respect to the branches, paired or solitary, producing phialides directly or producing branches; branches typically unicellular, producing phialides directly, singly or in a terminal whorl of 2–4. Phialides flask-shaped to pyriform. Conidia ellipsoidal, green, smooth. Chlamydospores scattered, not abundant, terminal and intercalary in hyphae, globose or subglobose, (2.3–)5.5–8(–14.0) x (1.6–)4.0–7.5(–10.8) µm, wall smooth or somewhat roughened.

    Habitat: On diverse lignicolous ascomycetes including perithecia of Neonectria jungneri and stromata of Stilbohypoxylon muelleri (Xylariaceae); endophytic in sapwood of Theobroma grandiflorum, Th. cacao and Fagus sylvatica.

    Known distribution: Brazil, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, Ghana, United Kingdom

    Holotype: Puerto Rico, Caribbean National Forest, El Yunque Recreation Area, Trail from Palo Colorado, elev. 700–800 m, on palm leaf midribs with Stilbohypoxylon muelleri, 22 Feb. 1996, G.J.S. 8076 (teleomorph BPI 744463; holotype of T. stilbohypoxyli BPI 744463B; ex-type culture G.J.S. 96-30 = ATCC MYA 2970 = CBS 992.97 = DAOM 231834).

    Additional specimens and cultures examined: Brazil, Rio Xingu, Bella Vista, isolated from trunk of 20 m tall Theobroma grandiflorum, 5 Mar. 2000, H.C. Evans & K.A. Holmes (culture DIS 205bi = IMI 385821). Costa Rica, Pta Arenas, Coto Brus, Sabalito, Sitio Coton Cito, sendero Sutuba, elev. 1400 m, Quercus forest, on bark of recently cut tree, 28 Sep. 2000, L. Umaña (G.J.S. 8850) (INBio 13274; culture G.J.S. 02-143). Ghana, Eastern Region, Mkawkaw Distr., Mpraeso Scarp, vic. Mpraeso, near telecom station, 06°34' N, 00°46' W, elev. 785 m, in disturbed forest, on bark, 20 Oct. 2003, G.J.S. 9391 & H.C. Evans (BPI 872115, culture G.J.S. 03-103); same collecting data, on twig, G.J.S. 9390 & H.C. Evans (BPI 872116; conidial isolate G.J.S. 03-156); same collecting data, on Neonectria jungneri, G.J.S. 9397 & H.C. Evans (BPI 872117; conidial isolate G.J.S. 03-157). Puerto Rico, Caribbean National Forest, Big Tree Trail to Lamina, North end, off Rte 191, elev. 500 m, on Stilbohypoxylon muelleri, 23 Feb. 1996, G.J.S. 8071a & H.-J. Schroers (BPI 744467, culture G.J.S. 96-32 = CBS 112888, DAOM 231835); Caribbean National Forest, Luquillo Mountains, Interpretive Trail, Serra Palm, off Rte 191, elev. 650 m, on palm leaf midribs with Stilbohypoxylon muelleri, 23 Feb. 1996, G.J.S. 8079a & H.-J. Schroers (BPI 744471, conidial isolate G.J.S. 96-42a = CBS 112886 = DAOM 231836); Serra Palm, off Rte 191, elev. 700–800 m, 23 Feb. 1996, G.J.S. 8076a & H.-J. Schroers (BPI 744756, culture G.J.S. 96-43 = CBS 450.96 = DAOM 231837).
    United Kingdom, Wiltshire, Savernake Forest, isolated from trunk of Fagus sylvatica, S.E. Thomas B69-6A (culture G.J.S. 05-475); same locality, second collection, S.E. Thomas B69-1A (culture G.J.S. 05-474).

    Notes: As is evident from the several specimens and cultures cited here, T. stilbohypoxyli is a common tropical species, the teleomorph of which we have seen in Ghana and Puerto Rico. Additional tef analysis (not shown) has shown T. stilbohypoxyli to be phylogenetically diverse, the diversity corresponding to some extent with the geographic diversity that is indicated in the specimens examined cited above. However, we lack consistent morphological information to use in recognizing species within the phylogenetic diversity. Ascospores of the single Ghanaian collection were somewhat larger than they were in the Puerto Rican collections (respectively: distal part-ascospores: 4.2 ± 0.4 x 3.7 ± 0.2 µm vs 4.0 ± 0.3 x 3.5 ± 0.3 µm; proximal part-ascospores 4.5 ± 0.5 x 3.5 ± 0.2 µm vs 4.7 ± 0.5 x 3.0 ± 0.2 µm). The Puerto Rican cultures grew more slowly than the others on PDA, reaching a maximum radius of 45 mm after 72 h at the optimum temperature of 30 °C; colony radius in the other isolates was 55–70 mm. This difference was not seen on SNA. We were surprised to find T. stilbohypoxyli as an endophyte of trunks of ancient beech trees in the United Kingdom and Theobroma species in South America. Interestingly, the Fagus endophytes (G.J.S. 05-474, G.J.S. 05-475) clustered independently of the Theobroma endophyte (DIS 205b) from Brazil.
    In the Caribbean region, T. stilbohypoxyli is found with T. caribbaeum var. caribbaeum, T. intricatum and T. koningiopsis. Trichoderma caribbaeum and T. koningiopsis have the longest conidia and, with T. stilbohypoxyli, they have the longest ascospores and highest L/W for their conidia. Trichoderma stilbohypoxyli is distinguished by having shorter and narrower conidia than T. caribbaeum and T. koningiopsis and by having the slowest growth rate of all these species when grown on PDA, a difference that is especially noticeable at 20 °C; this difference is not seen on SNA. On SNA at 20 °C T. caribbaeum and T. koningiopsis grow considerably faster than T. stilbohypoxyli and T. intricatum, a difference that is not seen at higher temperatures.
    The two Fagus endophytes from the U.K. grew much more slowly than the other isolates of T. stilbohypoxyli on SNA; the difference was marked at 25–30 °C. No difference was seen in growth rate on PDA, but the Fagus endophytes remained sterile and produced a distinctive, diffusing orange pigment when grown one week in intermittent light at 20–30 °C.

  13. Trichoderma taiwanense Samuels & M.L. Wu, sp. nov. MycoBank MB501048. Figs 23, 290–295
    Teleomorph: Hypocrea sp. Figs 49–50, 296–299.
    Etymology: Named for the type locality, Taiwan.
    Stromata discoidea, lutea ad rufa, glabra, papillata, ostiola plerumque occulta. Ascosporae hyalinae, spinulosae. Pars distalis ascosporarum (2.7–)3.0–4.0(–4.7) x (2.5–)3.0–3.5(–4.0) µm, pars proxima (3.0–)3.5–4.5(–5.2) x (2.2–)2.5–3.2 µm. Conidiophora Trichodermati koningii Oudem. similia, regulariter ramosa, ad basim incrassata, verrucosa. Conidia viridia, laevia, ellipsoidea, (3.5–)3.7–4.2(–4.7) x (2.5–)2.7–3.2(–3.5) µm; ratio longitudinis:latitudinis (1.0–) 1.2–1.6(–1.8). Radius coloniae in substrato PDA dicto post 72 horas 25 °C obscuritate 43–46 mm.
    Holotypus cultura sicca ex ascospora oriens BPI 737694.
    Stromata more or less circular in outline, more or less discoidal, luteous when dry, rufous in 3 % KOH, 0.5–1 mm diam, margins free, smooth; surface tuberculate due to the rounded perithecial elevations, ostiolar openings not visible. Cells of the stroma surface distinctly pseudoparenchymatous, (2–)6–10(–12) µm diam, walls slightly thickened, hairs not observed at the stroma surface. Surface region of the stroma 12–20 µm thick, composed of pigmented, pseudoparenchymatous cells, 3.5–10 µm diam, walls slightly thickened. Tissue immediately below the surface region of intertwined hyphae. Perithecia elliptic in section, 160–200 µm high, 90–120 µm diam, ostiolar canal 50–70 µm long; perithecial apex protruding slightly through the stroma surface, formed of narrow hyphal elements. Asci cylindrical, apex thickened, with a pore. Part-ascospores hyaline, finely spinulose, dimorphic; distal part ellipsoidal to subglobose, proximal part wedge-shaped to oblong.

    Characteristics in culture: Optimum temperature for growth on PDA 25–30 °C, on SNA 25 °C. Colonies grown on PDA in darkness or in light forming conidia in the centre of the colony with conidial production gradually spreading outwardly in faint concentric rings. Conidia dark green on CMD. No pigment diffusing through the agar; no distinctive odour. Colonies grown on CMD at 20 °C under light filling the Petri plate within 1 wk, conidia forming in minute, ill-defined tufts and in the aerial mycelium. Conidiophores symmetrical, comprising a recognizable main axis, 2–3 µm wide, often arising from an enlarged, verrucose base (Figs 290–293), fertile branches arising along the length of the main axis, more or less paired, with longer or shorter internodes. Branches arising at an angle of slightly less than 90° with respect to the main axis, longer branches near the base and short branches or solitary phialides arising near the tip; branches rebranching to a limited extent or producing phialides directly, 2° branches producing phialides at the tip and often along the length. Phialides typically straight, lageniform, cylindrical or slightly swollen in the middle, held in whorls of 3 or 4, sometimes crowded and penicillate when formed within a pustule; intercalary phialides not seen. Conidia ellipsoidal, smooth. Chlamydospores not observed.

    Habitat: On bark.

    Known distribution: Republic of China (Taiwan).

    Holotype: Republic of China, Taiwan, Fushan Botanical Garden, on bark, 23 Jan. 1995, M.-L. Wu 95-F1-11-T3 (BPI 737694; ex-type culture G.J.S. 95-93 = CBS 119058).

    Notes: The Hypocrea specimen from which T. taiwanense is derived is overmature. Few asci remain and the stroma is collapsed. The stroma does not appear to be typical of members of this group in its gross morphology, but this could be the result of overmaturity. We have not described the Hypocrea teleomorph of this species as new pending the discovery of material in better condition.
    Two species having the T. koningii morphology and included in the present work are found in Taiwan, T. taiwanense and T. austrokoningii. For distinctions between these two phylogenetically distinct but phenotypically similar species see commentary under T. austrokoningii and Table 3. 
     

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