Towards an understanding of the interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli within the reduviid insect host Rhodnius prolixus
Patrícia AzambujaI; Norman A. RatcliffeII; Eloi S. GarciaI,*
IDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
IIBiomedical and Physiologial Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA28PP, United Kingdom
This review outlines aspects on the developmental stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the invertebrate host, Rhodnius prolixus. Special attention is given to the interactions of these parasites with gut and hemolymph molecules and the effects of the organization of midgut epithelial cells on the parasite development. The vector insect's permissiveness to T. cruzi, which develops in the vector gut, largely depends on the host nutritional state, the parasite strain and the molecular interactions with trypanolytic compounds, lectins and resident bacteria in the gut. T. rangeli invades the hemocoel and once in the hemolymph, can be recognized and activates the defense system of its insect vector, i.e., the prophenoloxidase system, phagocytosis, hemocyte microaggregation, superoxide and nitric oxide activity and the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, these findings not only provide a better understanding of the interactions parasite - insect vector, but also offer new insights into basic physiological processes involved in the parasites transmission.
Key words: Trypanosomes, Rhodnius prolixus, vector, parasites.
Source: An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.77 no.3 Rio de Janeiro Sept. 2005