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The Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) is a commonly reported index of …

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- Standardizing estimates of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate

David L Smith1,5, Carlos A Guerra2,3, Robert W Snow3,4 and Simon I Hay2,3

1Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Building 16, 16 Center Drive, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA

2Spatial Ecology and Epidemiology Group, Tinbergen Building, Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK

3Malaria Public Health & Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, KEMRI-Wellcome Trust-Collaborative Programme, Kenyatta National Hospital Grounds, PO Box 43640-00100 Nairobi, Kenya

4Centre for Tropical Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK

5Department of Zoology & Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, 223 Bartram Hall, PO Box 118525 Gainesville FL, USA


The Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) is a commonly reported index of malaria transmission intensity. PfPR rises after birth to a plateau before declining in older children and adults. Studies of populations with different age ranges generally report average PfPR, so age is an important source of heterogeneity in reported PfPR data. This confounds simple comparisons of PfPR surveys conducted at different times or places.


Several algorithms for standardizing PfPR were developed using 21 studies that stratify in detail PfPR by age. An additional 121 studies were found that recorded PfPR from the same population over at least two different age ranges; these paired estimates were used to evaluate these algorithms. The best algorithm was judged to be the one that described most of the variance when converting the PfPR pairs from one age-range to another.


The analysis suggests that the relationship between PfPR and age is predictable across the observed range of malaria endemicity. PfPR reaches a peak after about two years and remains fairly constant in older children until age ten before declining throughout adolescence and adulthood. The PfPR pairs were poorly correlated; using one to predict the other would explain only 5% of the total variance. By contrast, the PfPR predicted by the best algorithm explained 72% of the variance.


The PfPR in older children is useful for standardization because it has good biological, epidemiological and statistical properties. It is also historically consistent with the classical categories of hypoendemic, mesoendemic and hyperendemic malaria. This algorithm provides a reliable method for standardizing PfPR for the purposes of comparing studies and mapping malaria endemicity. The scripts for doing so are freely available to all.

◊ An open access article from Malaria Journal 2007, 6:131 distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), viewed from Biology-Online.org.

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