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Biology Articles » Zoology » Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes » Figures

Figures
- Stable isotopes in elephant hair document migration patterns and diet changes

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Fig. 1. NDVI and stable isotope record of B1013 compared with other elephants. (A) Average 10-day composite NDVI values for the Samburu National Reserve region from 2001 through 2002, where elevated values indicate increased vegetative productivity occurring during wet seasons. (B) 15N of hair from B1013 (black line; n = 83) and observations of B1013 in Samburu National Reserve (black rectangles; n = 17) during 2001 and 2002 compared with the range of average values of 15N (±2; gray region; n = 520) in hairs of six resident elephants of Samburu National Reserve. Chronology was established as described in the text. Each average value (with standard deviation) of the Samburu National Reserve residents was averaged during the 10-day intervals coinciding with NDVI composite data. (C) 13C from hair of B1013 (open circles; n = 83) compared with the average 13C (±2; gray region; n = 520) values of hair from six resident elephants of Samburu National Reserve. (D) Estimated C4 component of diet of B1013 (open circles; n = 83) compared with the average of six resident elephants of Samburu National Reserve. Gray area shows the diet (±2; gray region, n = 520) of six resident elephants of Samburu National Reserve. Diet as percent C4 biomass was estimated as in ref. 12.

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Fig. 2. Histogram of hours spent by B1013 outside Imenti Forest. In total, 2,179 h of GPS positions were recorded when B1013 was in or around the Imenti Forest. During this period, 236 h of GPS positions (10.8%) were recorded outside the designated forest boundaries in areas dense with subsistence farming. Being essentially on the equator, the sun rises and sets at 6:30 every day with little variation. All but 2 of the 236 h spent outside the Imenti Forest were during night hours during this interval.

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Fig. 3. Detail of diet for B1013 from June 1 to October 1, 2001 using 1-mm hair segments. The diet estimate of C4 fraction uses C3 and C4 endmember mixing lines for both mesic (upper boundary) and xeric environments (lower boundary). These have average 13C values of -28 and -12 for mesic environments and -26 and -13 for xeric environments, respectively. Average interval of time is 1.8 days (maximum, 2.4 days; minimum, 0.9 days).

 

 


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