Nothing but skin and bone
F. Patrick Ross1 and Angela M. Christiano2
1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.
2Departments of Dermatology and Genetics and Development, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.
Address correspondence to: F. Patrick Ross, Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8118, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA. Phone: (314) 454-8079; Fax: (314) 454-5505; E-mail: email@example.com . Or to: Angela M. Christiano, Departments of Dermatology and Genetics and Development, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, VC-1526, New York, New York 10032, USA. Phone: (212) 305-9565; Fax: (212) 305-7391; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org .
Skin and bone — what comes to mind at hearing this phrase? While certainly a metaphor for disease, it also defines two very different tissues, one a flexible and contiguous outer covering, the other a morphologically diverse hard tissue distributed at over 200 sites in the body. As the accompanying series of Reviews highlights, these tissues are indeed diverse, but there are also surprising similarities. Skin is the interface between the internal organs and the environment, and as such plays a crucial role in the body’s defense mechanism. The skin and its many appendages are responsible for functions as diverse as epidermal barrier and defense, immune surveillance, UV protection, thermoregulation, sweating, lubrication, pigmentation, the sensations of pain and touch, and, importantly, the protection of various stem cell niches in the skin. Bone serves a number of purposes: it provides protection for vital organs, a lever for locomotion, a reservoir for calcium, and the site of adult hematopoiesis. The tissue is composed of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and their individual precursors plus a complex mixture of mesenchymal, myeloid, and lymphoid cells in the marrow space. Finally, the endothelial microenvironment provides nutrition and is a conduit for the influx and emigration of cells that impact bone biology in several important ways. This Review series guides the reader through these various facets of 2 diverse, yet interdependent, tissues.
While in the adult vertebrate organism, bone and skin spend much of their time as separate entities with vastly different agendas, the skin dermis and the bone originate from a common primordial mesenchyme, and at some points in development the overlying epidermis — in the form of the apical ectodermal ridge — and the outgrowth of the limb are intimately interdependent. In the earliest days of development, and again in times of need such as limb regeneration in tetrapod vertebrates, the 2 tissues must come together and function very much as one. The study of developmental pathways and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the skin and bone have revealed some striking parallels, which are reprised in both organs in the adult.
Source: J. Clin. Invest. 116:1140-1149 (2006)