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Consistent evidence suggests that high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated …


Biology Articles » Health and Medicine » Role of Various Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Prevention » Tables

Tables
- Role of Various Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Prevention

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Table 1. Relative risk* of lung cancer between tertiles of daily intake of individual carotenoids and of vegetables and fruits


Relative risk (95% confidence interval) by tertile

P for trend{dagger}

Tertile

Lowest (referent)

Middle

Highest

Low

High

Carotenoid, µg/day
 {alpha}-Carotene 1 0.91 (0.62-1.33) 0.61 (0.39-0.95) .10 12 53
 ß-Carotene 1 1.14 (0.79-1.66) 0.79 (0.50-1.24) .15 849 1522
 {gamma}-Carotene 1 1.12 (0.74-1.69) 1.01 (0.67-1.51) .79 12 41
 ß-Cryptoxanthin 1 0.79 (0.53-1.15) 0.72 (0.46-1.11) .84 1.3 4.1
 Lycopene 1 1.04 (0.69-1.57) 1.00 (0.67-1.50) .77 214 764
 Lutein and zeaxanthin 1 0.68 (0.45-1.03) 0.87 (0.57-1.31) .34 928 1271
  All carotenoids 1 1.18 (0.80-1.74) 0.92 (0.60-1.41) .21 2350 3830
Food group, g/day
 Fruits and vegetables 1 0.86 (0.59-1.26) 0.60 (0.38-0.96) .02 116 225
 Fruits 1 0.85 (0.57-1.25) 0.58 (0.37-0.93) .013 39 106
 Vegetables 1 0.90 (0.61-1.34) 0.83 (0.54-1.26) .20 61 118
 Root vegetables 1 0.98 (0.68-1.42) 0.56 (0.36-0.88) .03 11 32
 Legumes 1 1.24 (0.83-1.85) 0.88 (0.58-1.34) .55 4 8
 Other vegetables 1 0.92 (0.61-1.38) 0.89 (0.59-1.35) .71 37 74

* Adjusted for age and smoking status.

{dagger} Likelihood ratio test based on Cox's model.

 

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Table 2. Relative risk* of lung cancer between the highest and lowest tertiles of daily intake of individual carotenoids in nonsmokers and smokers

Carotenoid

Relative risk (95% confidence interval)

Mean intake, µg

P for difference{dagger}

Nonsmokers (n = 28)

Smokers (n = 90)

Nonsmokers

Current smokers

{alpha}-Carotene 0.33 (0.11-1.02) 0.70 (0.43-1.14) 75 62 .001
ß-Carotene 0.38 (0.12-1.18) 0.96 (0.58-1.58) 1737 1602 .009
{gamma}-Carotene 0.44 (0.16-1.26) 1.29 (0.82-2.01) 39 41 .25
ß-Cryptoxanthin 0.37 (0.12-1.12) 0.82 (0.51-1.33) 4.1 3.4
Lycopene 0.46 (0.16-1.33) 1.26 (0.81-1.96) 701 734 .22
Lutein and zeaxanthin 0.46 (0.18-1.17) 0.99 (0.62-1.57) 1182 1141 .002
  All carotenoids 0.47 (0.17-1.31) 1.12 (0.70-1.80) 3738 3584 .04

* Adjusted for age.

{dagger} F-test (two-sided) based on the linear model.

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