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Biology Articles » Hydrobiology » Freshwater Biology » Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria » Cyanobacteria and water-related disease: some complicating factors

Cyanobacteria and water-related disease: some complicating factors
- Recreational and occupational field exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria

Other explanations for disease need to be considered by both clinicians and epidemiologists in their respective endeavours. Epidemiological studies usually aim to identify and adjust for confounding variables such as smoking and age of study participants. The following sections will discuss some freshwater-related risk factors, mostly microbial, that may confound epidemiological studies and complicate clinical diagnoses of cyanobacteria-related illness linked to recreational exposures. The final section of this review will discuss the possibility of misdiagnosis from the opposite direction: a water-borne disease outbreak in Finland that was subject to epidemiological scrutiny, but cyanobacterial exotoxin contamination of reticulated supplies was apparently not considered at the time.


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