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Tables
- Phosphorus Runoff from Agricultural Land and Direct Fertilizer Effects




Table 1. Phosphorus (P) losses from different land uses, related to P fertilizer application.

        P loss

   
Land use

Pathway

Scale, type,
measurement
period

P added
and form{dagger}

Dissolved

Total

Applied P lost

Reference, location

      kg ha–1

   
            %  
Grazed pasture surface runoff 55-m2 plots,
  4 mo
0
50 (SSP)
 0.91{ddagger}
2.43{ddagger}
 1.57
  4.64
6.1 Sharpley and Syers (1976),
  New Zealand
Ungrazed pasture surface runoff 41-m2 plots,
  4 mo
0
50 (SSP)
 0.46{ddagger}
1.89{ddagger}
 0.82
  3.64
5.7 Sharpley and Syers (1976),
  New Zealand
Ungrazed pasture surface runoff 55-m2 plots,
  3 yr
0
50 (SSP)
 0.47{ddagger},§
2.19{ddagger},§
 1.00§
  4.36§
6.7 Sharpley and Syers (1979b),
  New Zealand
Rotationally grazed
  pasture
surface runoff 7.8- to 11.1-ha
  catchments,
  1 yr
0
75 (ammonium
  phosphate)
 0.02{ddagger}
2.43{ddagger}
 0.20
  3.09
2.9 Olness et al. (1980), USA
Continuously grazed
  pasture
surface runoff 7.8- to 11.1-ha
  catchments,
  1 yr
0
75 (ammonium
  phosphate)
 0.01{ddagger}
3.27{ddagger}
 0.76
  4.90
4.1 Olness et al. (1980), USA
Ungrazed pasture surface runoff 41- to 55-m2
  plots, 5 mo
0
50 (solid SSP)
 0.28§,
1.71§,
 0.87§
  3.77§
5.8 Sharpley and Syers (1983),
  New Zealand
      50 (liquid SSP)  0.79§,  1.23§ 2.3  
Grazed hill country
  pasture
surface and
  subsurface
  runoff
0.1- to 1.5-ha
  catchments,
  1.5 to 4.5 yr
11
64 (SSP)
 0.10§,
0.14§,
 0.95§
  0.94§
 –
Lambert et al. (1985),
  New Zealand
Ungrazed pasture surface runoff
  (first irrigation)
240-m2 irrigation
  bays, 1 mo
0
22
– 6.00#  –
  6.60
30.0 Austin et al. (1996),
  Australia
      44  8.70#  9.70 22.0  
      66 11.40#  12.90 19.5  
      88 (SSP) 11.50#  11.90 13.5  
Grazed pasture surface and
  subsurface
  runoff
1-ha lysimeter
  plots, 30 h
0
16 (TSP)

 0.001
approx. 0.5
approx. 3 Haygarth and Jarvis (1997),
  UK
Ungrazed pasture surface runoff 150-m2 hillslope
  plots, 1 wk
0
100 (DAP)
 0.09{dagger}{dagger}
2.50{dagger}{dagger}
 0.09
  3.80
3.8 Heathwaite et al. (1998),
  UK
Grazed pasture surface runoff 0.37-ha irrigation
  bays, 2 yr
0
44 (SSP)
 6.0§,{dagger}{dagger}
20.7§,{dagger}{dagger}
 8.1§
  26.7§
42 Bush and Austin (1999),
  Australia
      44 (Prolong{ddagger}{ddagger}) 13.1§,{dagger}{dagger}  17.7§ 22  
Ungrazed pasture surface runoff 0.5-m2 hillslope
  plots, 7.5 mo
0
35 (SSP)
  0.02{dagger}{dagger}
0.59{dagger}{dagger}
 0.04
  0.64
1.8 Nguyen et al. (1999),
  New Zealand
      35 (TSP)  0.77{dagger}{dagger}  0.84 2.4  
      35 (TSP–DAPR)  0.27{dagger}{dagger}  0.32 0.9  
      35 (DAPR)  0.03{dagger}{dagger}  0.06 0.2  
Laboratory microcosm,
  sieved soil
surface runoff 0.5-m2 sloped
  plots, 1 mo
0
35 (SSP)
 0.008{dagger}{dagger}
0.430{dagger}{dagger}
 0.42
  1.12
2.0 Nguyen et al. (2002),
  New Zealand
      35 (DAPR)  0.017{dagger}{dagger}  0.43  0.03  
Cultivated seedbed surface runoff
  (first runoff
  event)
32-m2 plots,
  4 mo
0
90 (TSP)
 0.008{ddagger}
0.62{ddagger}
 0.04
  0.67
0.7 Withers et al. (2001),
  UK
Ungrazed pasture subsurface and
  surface runoff
30-m2 lysimeter
  plots, 1 wk
0
29 (TSP)

 0.06
  1.86
6.4 Preedy et al. (2001),
  UK
Paddy soil under
  wheat
subsurface and
  surface runoff
30-m2 plots,
  3 mo
0
20
 0.03{dagger}{dagger}
0.04{dagger}{dagger}
 0.25
  0.39
0.7 Zhang et al. (2003),
  Anzhen, China
      80  0.10{dagger}{dagger}  0.57 0.4  
      160 (N–P–K + SSP)  0.28{dagger}{dagger}  0.82 0.4  
Paddy soil under
  wheat
subsurface and
  surface runoff
30-m2 plots,
  3 mo
0
20
 0.04{dagger}{dagger}
0.19{dagger}{dagger}
 0.39
  0.54
 0.75 Zhang et al. (2003),
  Changshu, China
      80  0.68{dagger}{dagger}  1.36 1.2  






160 (N–P–K + SSP)

 0.94{dagger}{dagger}

 1.94

1.2



{dagger} DAP, diammonium phosphate; DAPR, direct-application phosphate rock; SSP, single superphosphate; TSP, triple superphosphate.

{ddagger} Total dissolved phosphorus.

§ Values shown are kg P ha–1 yr–1.

Dissolved inorganic phosphorus.

# Estimated dissolved reactive phosphorus.

{dagger}{dagger} Dissolved reactive phosphorus.

{ddagger}{ddagger} Prolong is a granulated mixture of SSP and North Carolina phosphate rock, with a soluble P content of approximately 55%.

 


 


Table 2. Cumulative mean dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) in 60-min simulated runoff events from unfertilized and fertilized hillslope microplots, Whatawhata, New Zealand.

  Day

  3

10

32

110

232

Treatment{dagger}

DRP

PP

DRP

PP

DRP

PP

DRP

PP

DRP

PP

  mg plot–1

Control  0.13 0.17  0.24 0.52  0.37 0.84  0.68 1.01  0.83 1.16
SSP 23.26 0.54 27.09 1.53 28.19 2.35 29.20 2.63 29.40 2.82
TSP/S 33.82 1.05 37.13 2.62 37.89 3.27 38.45 3.43 38.65 3.60
DAPR/TSP/S 10.48 0.52 12.09 1.43 12.51 1.99 13.17 2.23 13.38 2.43
Gafsa/S  0.17 0.22  0.47 0.89  0.76 1.31  1.18 1.52  1.39 1.70
Kosseir/S

 0.23

0.33

 0.45

1.02

 0.75

1.42

 1.13

1.58

 1.29

1.73

{dagger} Control, unfertilized; SSP, single superphosphate; TSP/S, triple superphosphate and elemental sulfur; DAPR/TSP/S, direct application phosphate rock blend plus triple superphosphate; Gafsa/S, Gafsa DAPR and elemental sulfur; Kosseir/S, Kosseir DAPR and elemental sulfur.

 


 


Table 3. Physicochemical characteristics of some common phosphorus fertilizers.

Fertilizer{dagger}

Total P

P soluble in
2% citric acid

P soluble
in water

Approximate
particle density

  %

 
        g cm–3
SSP  9 90+ 80–90 1.9
TSP 20 94+ 93+ 1.9
DCP 20 95+  4–17 2.3
DAP 20 95+ 95+ 1.7
Reverted SSP  7–8 70–80 20 1.9
DAPR

12–14

30–40

1–2

3.0

{dagger} DAP, diammonium phosphate; DAPR, direct-application phosphate rock; DCP, dicalcium phosphate; SSP, single superphosphate; TSP, triple superphosphate.



 



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