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Figures
- Phage-Host Interaction: an Ecological Perspective

Figures

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FIG.1. Cycles: dynamic phage-host relationships. (A) Phages in the cheese factory. Cheese whey phage titers (y axis) observed on the starter strains B to P indicated on the z axis on a given day (x axis) before (negative days) and after the introduction of the new starter strain. Reprinted from reference 14 with permission. (B) Phages in a European lake. Chlorophyll a, bacterial abundance, bacteria with intracellular mature phage particles, free phages

Figure 1

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FIG. 2. Morphological diversity of phages isolated from food fermentation. The negative-stain electron microscopic pictures show a Lactobacillus plantarum myovirus LP65 (note the contracted tail in the right phage in panel C), a L. plantarum siphovirus LP45 (panel D), and a Staphylococcus carnosus stc1 or -2 podovirus (panel B, side view of stc2; panel A, stc1 [from beneath, the phage baseplate becomes visible as a wheel-like structure]). All phages were isolated from meat (salami) fermentation. The bars are 100 nm.

Figure 2

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FIG. 3. Genomic diversity of phages isolated from the ocean. The genome maps of the currently sequenced marine phages are shown. From top to bottom: Vibrio parahaemolyticus phage VP16C resembling dairy Siphoviridae over the structural genes (GenBank accession no. AY328853; AY328852 for the related phage VP16T); Vibrio harveyi phage VHML resembling E. coli siphophage lambda over the head and myophage P2 over the tail genes (no. AY133112); Alteromonas phage PM2, the first lipid-containing bacterial virus attributed to the new phage family Corticoviridae (no. NC_000867); cyanophage P60 infecting Synechococcus sp., which shows a distant E. coli phage T7-like genome organization (no. NC_003390); V. parahaemolyticus phage VpV262, another marine phage with a T7-like genome organization (no. NC_003907). Not shown are a Roseobacter phage SIO1 (no. NC_002519), since it only distantly resembled T7 phages and otherwise nothing else in the database. Also not shown is the broad-host-range vibriophage KVP40 (no. NC_005083) because its 244,835-bp genome is larger than all depicted phage genomes together. KVP40 resembles E. coli myovirus T4 closely over the structural and DNA replication modules but differs by large insertions of DNA lacking database matches. The likely functions of the genes are color coded: green, head; blue, tail; brown, head-to-tail genes (in VP16C) and transmembrane structural genes (in PM2); orange, DNA replication; yellow, transcription; red, lysogeny and recombination; mauve, lysis; black, lysogenic conversion genes.

Figure 3

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FIG. 4. Phage-host interaction. Thin-section electron microscopy of myophage LP65 infecting an oral commensal Lactobacillus plantarum strain. Note the conspicuous membrane system underlying the phage adsorption site. The phage is the same as the myovirus shown in a negative-staining preparation in the central panel of Fig. 2. The bar is 100 nm.

Figure 4

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 Source: J Bacteriol. 2004 Jun;186(12):3677-86. © 2004, American Society for Microbiology


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