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Biology Articles » Paleobiology » Paleobiology and comparative morphology of a late Neandertal sample from El Sidrón, Asturias, Spain » Figures

Figures
- Paleobiology and comparative morphology of a late Neandertal sample from El Sidrón, Asturias, Spain

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Fig. 1. Localization of the El Sidrón site in Asturias (Spain). A map of the cave system with the Osario Gallery show the excavated area.

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Fig. 2. Mandibles from El Sidrón site and paleobiological aspects of the sample. (A) Mandible 1. (B) Mandible 2. (C) Mandible 3. (D) Interproximal facet with subvertical grooves. (E), Enamel hypoplasia defects in the specimen SD-1161. (F) Cutmarks on the basal border of Mandible 3. [Scale bar: 3 cm (A–C); 1 mm (D); 1 cm (E and F).]

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Fig. 3. SD-1219 El Sidrón occipitomastoid region. Shown are posterior (A), left side (B), and interior (C) views. (Scale bar: 3 cm.)

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Fig. 4. Mandibular measurements and indices suggesting geographic patterning in Neandertal populations. (Left and Center) Box plots of significantly different variables in a north–south geographic polarity. Box plots provide means, mean ± SE (box), and mean ± SD (whiskers). (Right) Outliers appear as circles. Scatter plot of two indices of mandibular variables is shown. EMP, European Middle Pleistocene; Northern, northern Neandertals; Southern, southern Neandertals; For, mental foramen; M3, bucodistal corner of the alveolus; Lin, Lingula mandibulae. Corpus height is at the level of the mental foramen. EMP specimens were from Arago, Mauer, and Atapuerca-SH. Northern Neandertals were from La Ferrassie, La Quina, Le Moustier, La Chapelle-aux-Saints, St. Césaire, La Chaise (L' Abri Suard), Spy, Regourdou, Ehringsdorf, and Aubesier. Southern Neandertals were from El Sidrón, Guattari, Zafarraya, Krapina, Vindija, Amud, Kebara, Tabun, and Shanidar.

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Fig. 5. Thin-plate spline transformations of the mean shape into a predicted shape according to singular vector scores of a north–south axis. (A) Partial least-squares analysis. (B) 3D mean shape differences between northern and southern Neandertal samples.

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