Overview of Inhalation Toxicology
by Michael A. Dorato*
The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres ofa wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals.
Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 85, pp. 163-170, 1990
The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over a century. Fraser et al. (1) provided a brief review of this early period and a description of inhalation technology up to 1959. Inhalation toxicology technology has experienced continuous development in the types of materials and designs used in constructing inhalation chambers. Excellent reviews of inhalation technology have been provided by Campbell (2), Phalen (3), Drew (4), and MacFarland (5). The following article will present an overview of aspects of current technology applied to inhalation toxicology studies, without attempting to review the entire spectrum of these studies. Some emphasis will be placed on studies with metered dose inhaler (MDI) aerosols, either for intranasal or pulmonary administration, as these represent an area of interest in drug delivery system development. Study design and inhalation toxicity assessment will be briefly considered.